St Lois III Str - History

St Lois III Str - History

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St. Louis III

(Str.: dp. 14,910; 1. 554'; b. 63'; dr. 30'; s. 20 k.; cpl.
377; a. 4 5", 8 6-pdrs.)

St. Louis, a transatlantic passenger liner built by the William Cramp & Sons Building & Engine Company, Philadelphia, Pa., was launched on 12 November 1894. sponsored by Mrs Grover Cleveland, wife of the President of the United States; and entered merchant service in 1895, under United States registry for the International Navigation Co., of New York with her maiden voyage between New York and Southampton, England.

On a later voyage following the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, St. Louis was chartered for Naval service while at Southampton and returned to New York on 22 April 1898. Armed with four 5-inch rapid fire guns and eight 6-pounders, she was commissioned as an auxiliary cruiser in the United States Navy on 24 April, Capt. Casper F. Goodrich in command. Manned by 27 officers and 350 men, she put to sea on 30 April for the Caribbean.

St. Louis was specially outfitted with heavy drag lines in order to destroy undersea cable communications in the West Indies and to the mainland of South America. On 13 May, she severed the cable between St. Thomas and San Juan; and five days later exchanged fire with the Morro Castle batteries at Santiago de Cuba as she cut the cable between that port and Holland's Bay, Jamaica. When Admiral Cervera's fleet sailed into Santiago Harbor, the Spanish warships found themselves cut off from direct communications with Spain.

St. Louis next severed the cable between Guantanamo Bay and Haiti; then cut the cable off Cienfuegos to isolate Cuba from outside communications. She joined in the bombardment of fortifications at Caimanera in Guantanamo Bay on 3 June; captured a Spanish merchant ship on the 10th; intercepted two British ships bound for Cuba—the Twickenham on 10 June and Wary on 1 July; and was present at the Battle of Santiago de Cuba on 8 July when the Spanish Fleet was destroyed while trying to force its way to sea.

St. Louis received many prisoners of war, including Admiral Cervera, for internment in the United States and landed them at Portsmouth, N.H., on 11 July. She steamed south from Norfolk on the 28th to cruise among ports of Puerto Rico and Cuba until 10 August then sailed for New York where she arrived on the 14th. She shifted to Philadelphia on 24 August to enter the Cramp shipyard for preparation for return to her owners. St. Louis was decommissioned on 2 September and was turned over to Mr. J. Parker, a representative of the American Lines.

For many years, SS St. Louis was prominent as a passenger liner between New York and Liverpool. On 17 March 1917, she was furnished an armed guard of 26 United States Navy sailors and armed with three 6-inch guns, to protect her from enemy attack as she continued her New York-to-Liverpool service. On 30 May, while proceeding up the Irish Channel and skirting the coast of England, she responded rapidly to the orders, "Hard Starboard," at the sighting of a periscope, and succeeded in dodging a torpedo while apparently striking the submarine which fired it. Later drydock examination revealed that 18 feet of her keel rubbing strake had been torn away. On 25 July, her gunners exchanged fire with a surfaced U-boat, some three miles away, and sighted many near misses.

On 17 April 1918, St. Louis was delivered to the Navy at New York to be wholly manned and operated by the Navy as a troop transport. She was renamed Louisville (SP-1644), as a cruiser named St. Louis u-as already in service in the Navy. Louisville was commissioned on 24 April.

Louisville first put to sea on 12 October bound for Portland and Southampton, England, and returned to New York on 7 January 1919. From then until 19 August of that year, she made six voyages from New York to Liverpool or to Brest, France, to return American soldiers from the Great War. On 20 August, she shifted to Norfolk and was decommissioned there on 9 September 1919. She was returned to her owner on the 11th and resumed her original name, St. Louis.

To be reconditioned as a passenger liner, St. Louis entered a shipyard at Hoboken, N.J., where early in January 1920, a workman's blow torch set her afire. After control of the fire was lost, she was scuttled alongside the dock and allowed to burn out. She was later refloated and taken over by insurance underwriters. Over the next five years, under ownership of various investors, she lay at docks in different parts of New York Harbor. Finally, she was sold in 1925; and two Dutch tugs towed her to Italy where she was scrapped by an Italian salvage company.

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Because of their relatively thin belt, this class was officially described as "semi-armored cruisers", bridging the gap between protected cruisers and armored cruisers. The Register of Ships of the US Navy lists them with the protected cruisers. [3] However, some other references list them as armored cruisers. [1] They were originally designated "cruisers" and not "armored cruisers", in the same series as protected cruisers. [3] The issue is confused by the Navy's official Ships' Data Book for 1911, which lists the St. Louis class as "First Class Cruisers" along with the earlier armored cruisers Saratoga (ex-New York) and Brooklyn. [5]

Armament Edit

The armament of these ships was very similar to that of the concurrently-built Pennsylvania-class armored cruisers, minus the 8-inch turreted guns and the torpedo tubes. The main armament was fourteen 6-in/50 caliber Mark 6 guns (Mark 8 in Milwaukee), mounted one each fore and aft with the remainder in casemates on the sides. [6] The large secondary armament, intended to combat torpedo boats, included eighteen 3-inch (76 mm)/50 caliber rapid fire (RF) guns [7] and twelve 3-pounder (47-millimetre (1.9 in)) RF guns. [8] Four 1-pounder (37-millimetre (1.5 in)) automatic guns, eight 1-pounder (37-mm) RF guns, [9] and two .30 cal. (7.62 mm) machine guns (possibly the M1895 Colt–Browning machine gun) were also carried. [1] [2]

Armor Edit

The armor of these ships was similar in arrangement to an armored cruiser, although significantly lighter compared to the concurrently-built Pennsylvania class. Harvey armor was used. A 4 in (102 mm) waterline belt that covered only the machinery spaces was augmented by a 4 in upper belt protecting the casemated guns. The protective deck was 3 in (76 mm) on the sloped sides and at the ends, and 2 in (51 mm) in the flat middle. The conning tower was 5 in (127 mm) thick. [1] [2]

Engineering Edit

The engineering plant included sixteen coal-fired Babcock & Wilcox straight-tube boilers supplying 250 psi (1,700 kPa) steam to two vertical four-cylinder triple-expansion engines, totaling 21,000 ihp (16,000 kW) for 22 kn (41 km/h 25 mph) as designed. [5] On trials Milwaukee achieved 22.22 kn (41.15 km/h 25.57 mph) at 24,166 ihp (18,021 kW). [2] The normal coal allowance was 650 tons, but this could be increased to 1,650 tons. [1]

Refits Edit

By 1911 the 1-pounder guns and machine guns had been removed, and the 3-pounder armament reduced to four saluting guns. [5] During World War I two of the 6-inch guns and all but four of the 3-inch single-purpose guns were removed, while two 3-in/50 caliber anti-aircraft guns were added. [10] [11]

The three ships of the St. Louis class were: [3]

Ship Shipyard Laid down Launched Commissioned Decommissioned Fate
USS St. Louis (C-20) Neafie & Levy, Philadelphia 31 July 1902 6 May 1905 18 June 1906 3 March 1922 Sold for scrap 13 August 1930
USS Milwaukee (C-21) Union Iron Works, San Francisco 30 July 1902 10 September 1904 10 December 1906 Grounded and lost attempting to refloat the submarine H-3 at Samoa Beach, near Eureka, California, on 13 January 1917
USS Charleston (C-22) Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia 30 January 1902 23 January 1904 17 October 1905 4 December 1923 Sold for scrap 6 March 1930, used as floating breakwater in British Columbia until wrecked 18 February 1961, relocated to Kelsey Bay as breakwater, wreck remains in place [12]

On 17 July 1920 St. Louis and Charleston were reclassified with the new hull numbers CA-18 (armored cruiser) and CA-19, respectively.

Houses of the rich and famous (in St. Louis, a century ago)

See the "starter homes" of the Busches, Lemps, Griesediecks, and Mallinckrodts.

“Before they were famous” photographs are popular with people nowadays, which made me wonder where many of St. Louis’ most famous captains of industry lived before they moved into their iconic estates. Those pre-celebrity houses are mostly gone, lost to urban renewal or just the natural expansion of downtown in the early 20th century. For example, it’s hard to believe now, but one cluster of the German-American business elite lived where the Clinton-Peabody Housing Project now stands. Likewise, some of the oldest, most prestigious families in St. Louis, including the Chouteaus, built on the land now rendered fallow by the Poplar Street Bridge approaches. Through historic photographs, we can piece together some of these lost houses’ histories.

Let’s start with the Busch family. Everyone is familiar with the mansion in the middle of Grant’s Farm, an iconic structure built by August A. Busch Sr. in 1910. But Eberhard Anheuser and his son-in-law Adolphus Busch lived in several other residences around St. Louis. As luck would have it, William Swekosky photographed Adolphus Busch’s house at 1838 Kennett Place, and it still stands, beautifully restored in the Lafayette Square neighborhood. Compton and Dry’s 1876 Pictorial St. Louis also gives us a tantalizing glimpse of what Busch’s and Anheuser’s houses looked like around their brewery and after they’d moved out to the exurbs.

Photo by W.S. Persons, 1914 courtesy of the Missouri History Museum

One Busch Place, with Eberhard Anheuser's house possibly visible at the right

Courtesy of the Missouri History Museum

The reception room at One Busch Place, around 1900

I’ve written before about the giant mansion Adolphus Busch built on the brewery grounds, but I recently found new photographs of the interior and exterior that give new insight into the house. I strongly suspect that the wing to the south of the hulking edifice might be his father-in-law’s original country Italianate house. Other members of the Busch family lived close by as well. Carl Busch, a son of Adolphus, lived at 1111 Arsenal, a short walk to the brewery, in a solidly middle-class house that is now long gone, replaced by a towering building that flanks the street.

The onetime Busch residence at 5577 Lindell

Photo by W.C. Parsons courtesy of the Missouri History Museum

Gussie's parlor at 5577 Lindell

While August “Gussie” A. Busch Jr. was famous for residing at Grant’s Farm, opening it up to the general public, and hosting pet elephants, he lived elsewhere until his father, August Busch Sr., the builder of the mansion, died in 1934. As the success of the brewery mushroomed, the size of the Busch sons’ “starter homes” grew: Gussie moved into 5577 Lindell Boulevard just north of Forest Park. The house stands, and a wonderful photograph by W.C. Persons shows us how sumptuously it was furnished when Gussie lived there.

Photo by William Swekosky courtesy of the Missouri History Museum

The Anton Griesedieck house, 1805 Lami Street

I’ve written before about the famous houses atop the bluffs of the Meramec River, owned by members of the Griesedieck and Lemp families. But they, too, had ancestors who lived in far more humble houses deep in the city and long since demolished. For example, Anton Griesedieck, who was the father of the four sons who would each begin different branches of the family brewing business, lived at 1805 Lami Street, which unfortunately was destroyed for the construction of the Ozark Expressway, modern Interstate 55. The location was logical, just east of the future Griesedieck Brothers Brewery and, later, Falstaff Plant No. 10, operated by his sons and grandsons. Joseph Griesedieck lived in the house as well, after his father died. In 1900, it was turned into an investment property, and it was later sold to a Byron Sharp. It is a respectable house, typical of an up-and-coming German American businessman living on the Near South Side of St. Louis.

The Griesedieck residence at 19 Squires Lane in Huntleigh

Alvin Griesedieck, the second president of Falstaff, would later raise his family at the prestigious address of 19 Squires Lane, in Huntleigh.

Courtesy of the Missouri History Museum

Adam Lemp's villa at DeMenil Place

The original founder of the Lemp dynasty, Adam, died in 1862, so he never even saw the Lemp Mansion in South St. Louis. The house was built well after his death by his friend Jacob Feickert. Adam Lemp had spent much of his career as a brewer living in an apartment above his saloon on South Second Street he would later construct a country villa on DeMenil Place that is only known to us through fragmentary photographs. The house owned by Feickert only came into the possession of Adam’s son, William Lemp Sr., much later.

Photo by W.C. Persons, 1915 courtesy of the Missouri History Museum

The Edward Mallinckrodt residence, built in 1914

Photo by William Swekosky courtesy of the Missouri HIstory Museum

The Mallinckrodt residence at 26 Vandeventer Place, built in 1881

Finally, a look at the houses of Edward Mallinckrodt, who founded the eponymous chemical company whose successor corporation still operates on the North Riverfront, is a study in how architecture can illustrate an individual’s rise in society. In 1881, Mallinckrodt built a stately house on Vandeventer Place—at the time the most exclusive address in the city—as Midtown filled with mansions of the wealthy and upper middle class after the Civil War. But by the turn of that century, Vandeventer Place and the surrounding neighborhood had grown crowded and commercial, and the mansions and churches were being replaced by skyscrapers, tenements and theaters. Mallinckrodt had little to worry about: In 1914, he upgraded quite nicely to a massive new mansion on Westmoreland Place, just north of Forest Park, avoiding the smoke of the city (residents were required to burn higher quality coal on the private street), and also settling into the largest lot in the area, stretching all the way to Lindell. But I hope he never forgot his “humble” earlier roots on Vandeventer Place.

Leisure was born in Detroit, Michigan, his mother was Lebanese and his father a Sicilian. Leisure was an associate of the St. Louis crime family and later started his own criminal organization, which became known as the Lebanese Mafia. His father was a hard worker, and with time opened Lesiure's, an Italian-Lebanese restaurant, in the 1920s. Leisure was a business agent for Local 42 and part owner of LN & P Company, a towing company owned by the Leisure family

On September 17, 1980, a well known St. Louis mobster and Leisure gang rival by the name of Jimmy Michaels (age 75), the leader of a rival faction within the Lebanese- Syrian mafia, was killed by a car bomb as he was driving on an interstate on his way home. Paul Leisure and his gang were the main suspects. Then on August 11, 1981, as Leisure sat behind the wheel of his 1979 Cadillac outside his home a bomb was detonated, leaving him seriously injured. The ensuing blast cost him his right leg and left foot. Investigators believed it was retaliation for the murder of Michaels the year before. A gang war ensued, resulting in many deaths on both sides between the Leisure faction and the Flynn- Michaels faction, now led by labor racketeer Raymond Flynn, over control of labor racketeering and other illegal activities.

On March 24, 1982 James A. Michaels III, a grandson of Jimmy Michaels, and Milton Russell Schepp, a former St. George, Missouri police chief, were charged with the Paul Leisure car bombing. Michaels was convicted of the Leisure bombing by a federal jury on October 19, 1982. He was sentenced to five years in prison.

On May 1, 1985 Paul and David Leisure were sentenced to 55 years in prison. The sentence consisted of 20 years for conspiracy, 20 years for racketeering, 5 years for obstruction of justice, and 10 years for manufacturing the bombs.

Leisure died at a federal prison hospital in Springfield, Missouri on July 17, 2000 at age 56.

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Built in 1851, the first house in the ele­gant Lucas Place neigh­bor­hood, the Camp­bell House was the home of renowned fur trad­er and entre­pre­neur Robert Camp­bell and his fam­ily from 1854 until 1938. The muse­um con­tains hun­dreds of orig­i­nal Camp­bell pos­ses­sions includ­ing fur­ni­ture, paint­ings, cloth­ing, let­ters, car­riages and a unique set of inte­rior pho­tographs tak­en in the mid-1880s. Please review our COVID guide­lines before your visit.

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About this page

APA citation. Heckmann, F. (1909). St. Ferdinand III. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

MLA citation. Heckmann, Ferdinand. "St. Ferdinand III." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. <>.

Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. September 1, 1909. Remy Lafort, Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York.

Watch the video: 60 Fascinating Historical Photos of St. Louis from the Early 20th Century