17 August 1944

17 August 1944

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17 August 1944

Eastern Front

Soviet troops reach the East Prussian border

Western Front

Model replaces Kluge as commander of German forces in the west

US troops liberate St Malo, Chartres and Orleans

Southern France

7th Army bridgeheads are linked up, creating a 50-mile front


Keitel visits Finland in an attempt to encourage Germany's wavering ally

17 August 1944 - History

Declassified Action Report

17 August to 28 August 1944

Operation "Anvil"

The Assault and Reduction of the Fortress of Saint Mandrier

In the planning for Operation Dragoon, the port of Toulon was an important objective. With a large and well-protected harbor, it had been the center of French naval operations in the Mediterranean for centuries. The naval base was the largest in western Europe, covering hundreds of acres and having maintenance facilities for the biggest warships. As such, and as a supply source for the invasion second only to the larger civilian port of Marseilles, its capture was essential to Dragoon’s success.

The Germans were well aware of the importance of the city, and had turned the Toulon area into a fortress. The defenses against a direct attack from the sea included batteries of large naval guns at Mauvannes, on the peninsula of Saint-Mandrier, and at several other locations along the coast.

The epilogue of this battle comes on the 28th of August, when, at 0800, the 1,800 marines of the Saint-Mandrier garrison offered their surrender and formed a column to return to the Les Sablettes district, the first stage of their captivity.

The surrender of this great French military port on the Mediterranean was completed eight days ahead of schedule.

In the course of nine days’ combat, the price paid was about 2,700 French casualties, of whom 100 were officers, as well as many tanks destroyed. On the German side, thousands of corpses confirmed the bitterness of the fighting. The spoils of the French army consisted of 17,000 prisoners, a large amount of war material, and a hundred artillery pieces, which were used to reinforce the war effort.

At last, the largest naval base in western Europe was conquered and opened up to the Allied forces to lay the groundwork for further victories.

Quoting from the Navy Department's Division of Naval History, Ships' Histories Section:

From June 6th until August 13th the MACKENZIE made short convoy runs in the middle Mediterranean without incident. On the 13th she sailed to take her place with 879 other ships off Toulon, France in preparation for "Operation Anvil" -- an Allied assault on the coast of Southern France.

Devised to follow up the Normandy invasion, this operation would not only liberate Southern France and relieve pressure on the southern flank of General Eisenhower's armies, but it would put Allied armies on the Italian Army's Riviera flank. In addition it would practically eliminate the U-boat-Luftwaffe menace in the Western Mediterranean.

The MACKENZIE was assigned to the Gunfire Support covering the landing of the 36th Infantry Division. The initial landings on 15 August met little resistance, and within three days Allied forces had captured over ten thousand prisoners.

While continuing to provide call fire to cover the advancing troops on August 17th, shore batteries opened up on the MACKENZIE and straddled her with 11 near misses. The closest fell 200 yards short, but damage was sustained.

On the 27th 16 Germans rowed out from their fort that was under fire, and surrendered to the MACKENZIE. On 15 September she was relieved of her station and returned to Boston for repairs and overhaul.

Click on the link below for the action report from the USS MacKenzie in connection with Operation "Anvil," the assault and reduction of the Fortress of Saint Mandrier.

29 August 1944 - Operation Anvil (17 to 28 August 1944)

These reports are posted as PDF files. Click the logo above if you need a free PDF reader.

A shattered city – ‘Festung St Malo’ – surrenders

As the German situation in both the East and the West grew more serious Hitler was to make increasingly desperate demands upon his forces. He had always been reluctant to allow retreats. Now he was to insist that certain locations were to be turned into “fortresses”, defensive citadels where his troops were expected to fight to the last man, holding up the general advance of the Allies for as long as possible. There were still plenty of fanatical Nazis prepared to follow such orders.

As the U.S. forces swept through Brittany they were to encounter a series of such fortresses established in the ports which might assist the Allies bring men and munitions straight onto the European continent. Cherbourg had not held out nearly as long as Hitler had hoped, although the port infrastructure had been so badly damaged it was of limited use to the Allies. Elsewhere the Germans held out for rather longer and the U.S. Third Army’s attempts to winkle them out were to cause extensive damage to these ancient towns. However, not all of the defenders proved to be as fanatical as Hitler hoped.

‘Festung St Malo’ surrendered on 17th August after a fortnight of hammering by bombs, artillery and mortars. Everywhere lay destruction – only 182 buildings out 865 still stood. Journalist Montague Lacey was present, covering events for the Daily Express:

A few minutes before four o’clock this afternoon, the German commander of the Citadel, Colonel von Auloch, the mad colonel with a monocle and a swaggering walk, led 605 men from the depths of his fortress and broke his promise to Hitler that he would never give in to the Americans. The colonel goose-stepped up to surrender, with a batman carrying his large black suitcase, and another in attendance round him flicking the dust from his uniform, and as they went by an American soldier called out: “What a corney show!”

Colonel von Auloch is the man who wrote to the American commander attacking the Citadel to say that a German officer never surrenders, and for 15 days he sat tight 60 feet below ground in the safety of his underground shelter. By tonight the Americans would have been sitting on top of his fortress, which would have become a mass grave for all the men in it. By holding out, Colonel von Auloch has not affected the course of the war one jot. What he has done is to cause the almost complete destruction of the old town of St. Malo, and sow further seeds of hatred in the hearts of the French.

Even as I write, the townspeople gathered in the Place above are shouting and shaking their fists at the Germans from the Citadel. As the Germans pile into trucks to be taken away, the older men somehow look ashamed and stupid, but the young Germans are still grinning and arrogant. The Citadel fell dramatically just an hour before American infantrymen were ready to assault the fortress for the third time, and just as a squadron of Lightning bombers swept in to shower incendiary bombs on the place.

All last night and throughout this morning heavy guns had pounded the Citadel, a main blockhouse surrounded by about a dozen entrances from the mine-like caverns below. The Americans ate their lunch in the wrecked streets before they formed for the attack. At 2.30 p.m. a big white flag appeared on one of the pillboxes. No one took much notice, for at 3 o’clock a fighter-bomber attack was to be laid on. Soon after 3 o’clock the first Lightning swept in. It came down to 50 feet and planted a couple of incendiaries square on top of the Citadel. More white flags were then run up – there were now five flying in the breeze.

The pilot of the second bomber saw them and dived without dropping his bombs. But he opened up his guns as a sort of warning as he flew round followed by the rest of the squadron. The airmen waited long enough to see a batch of Germans come from the Citadel and a bunch of Americans walk up the hill to the front carrying a coloured identification flag.

Now there was a mad scramble to the Citadel. Word soon went round that the Germans had surrendered. Everyone raced down the hillside to see the sight. First out was Colonel von Auloch still barking orders to his officers and men who were almost tumbling over themselves to obey. Two senior officers were with him, one of them a naval commander. They were all trying to make an impressive display in front of the Americans.

Then a curious thing happened. An elderly German, a naval cook, broke ranks and ran up and embraced a young American soldier. The German was lucky not to be shot and the guards lowered their guns just in time. But no one interfered when the U.S. soldier put his arms round the German. They were father and son. The German spoke good American slang and was allowed to stay out of the ranks and act as interpreter. He had been 14 years in American, he said, and went back to Germany just before the outbreak of war.

Colonel von Auloch counted all his men as they filed out carrying their belongings. There were Poles amoung the party, some Russians and about a dozen Italians. Still shouting orders, Von Auloch was put in a jeep and driven away to Division Headquarters. He refused to talk about his surrender and so did his soldiers.

Oberst Andreas von Aulock of 79. Infanterie-Division (standing in the jeep) taken prisoner by US soldiers, St. Malo, France.© Lawrence Riordan 1944

Down in the labyrinth of tunnels of the Citadel there was the usual destruction and signs of panic. Clothing and equipment were strewn all over the place. There was still plenty of food, water and ammunition – and the usual heaps of empty bottles.

Colonel von Auloch’s room was in the lowest and safest part of the fort. It was about eight feet by ten feet, and furnished only with two leather armchairs and a bed. It seemed to be the only room with a wash basin and running water.

On the desk stood an electric lamp and a telephone nearby was a tray containing coffee, and two postcards which the colonel was about to write. I have one of these cards now. It shows a picture of Goering and Hitler smiling as they ride through cheering crowds. On the back is the stamp which the colonel had just stuck on – a beautiful pictorial stamp of a fortress castle.

The big guns of the fort were wrecked, and all the Germans had left were machine-guns and other small arms. With the prisoners who came out of the Citadel was a little party of American soldiers who had been captured last Friday. They had crept up to the fortress at night with explosives in an attempt to wreck the ventilation system.

When all surrendered garrison had been driven away or marched away, several hundred French people gathered round shaking each other by the hand, cheering and singing their national anthem. And one day, soon perhaps, the Citadel where the mad colonel surrendered will be one of the sights the people of St. Malo will point out to visitors coming here again from England for their holidays.

The Institute for Historical Review has a post war analysis of the battle and the reasons for the destruction – but see comments below. French site documenting the reconstruction 1944-1966.

US archive footage of the battle for St Malo, shows the artillery assault, infantry entering the city and dealing with snipers, finally the liberated French ands their attitude to the Germans.

A post war aerial shot of the old port of St Malo – where most of the old granite buildings had been destroyed.

Below are some of the most important historical events that happened on 17 August 1944.

1590 &ndash Governor of Roanoke Island colony, John White, returns from England to find no trace of the colonists he had left there 3 years earlier [or Aug 18, 1591].

1903 &ndash Joe Pulitzer donates $1 million to Columbia University & begins the Pulitzer Prizes in America.

1945 &ndash Korea is divided into North and South Korea along the 38th parallel.

17 August 1944: Wellington crash in North Devon

My father was Flying Officer W Broadley No 178054 a Wellington Bomber Pilot with 172 Squadron Coastal Command, based at RAF Chivenor in North Devon.

On the night of 17 August 1944 the aircraft took off as usual for the night's work. Their job was to hunt down enemy submarines.

That night they had ony just left the airfield when a fault with the aeroplane was detected. The crew decided to go out to Barnstaple Bay and discarge the depthcharges they were carrying. This done they turned back to airbase. Unfortunately things went badly wrong. An engine became detached from the aeroplane and landed on the railway line between Barnstaple and Ilfracombe. The following day all the trains were stopped on that line. They managed to to carry on back to Chivenor. There was a dance being held in the Gym that night and Dad and the crew were afraid of the aircraft hitting building. The aeroplane missed the Gym and crashed onto the sports field to the rear of the building. As a result of the accident two crew members were killed a young man from Manchester and a Canadian airman 'Butch' Butchart. The pilot, an ex speedway rider, sustained a broken leg, others sustained minor physical injuries but deep emotional injuries. My father, the co-pilot, was blown from the aircraft and this resulted in him losing his right arm. The force of the blast also blew him out of his flying boots.

The sound of an aircraft in trouble and the resulting crash brought out all the personnel on the air station. A young WAAF risked her life to pull my father away from the aeroplane before it exploded further. He never know her name.

My father was taken to hospital in Barntaple for immediate life saving treatment. When he was well enough he was moved to the RAF Hospital Halton for further treatment, which included several more amputations to his damaged limb.

At the time of the accident my father was 22 years old, he had been married for just less than a year, and my mother, then aged 20 was pregnant with their first child. Me. I was born two months later and have grown up with this story.

My father's ambition was to become a commercial pilot, unfortnately this was not to be.

My parents went on to raise two more children and build up a very successful business.

Sadly my father died ten years ago, he was a very brave man who despite continual pain and suffering did not let his disability get in the way of living. He was much loved and an example to us all.

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Remains of B-17 Gunner Identified

In August 1944, Army Air Forces Staff Sgt. Willard R. Best was a 24-year-old gunner on a B-17 assigned to the 407 th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy), 40 th Combat Bombardment Wing, 1 st Air Division, 8 th Air Force.

The Staunton, Illinois, native was part of a nine-man crew in a B-17 Flying Fortress during a bombing raid over Merseburg, Germany, on August 24 th . The plane was caught by anti-aircraft fire and crashed. Four crew members survived and were captured by the Germans. The rest, including Best, were killed in the crash.

The remains of Best were reported to have been interred in the Leipzig-Lindenthal Cemetery. When the war was over, the American Graves Registration Command disinterred three sets of remains from that cemetery. Two of the three could not be identified at the time.

B-17 waist gunners

They were declared unidentifiable and were assigned the designations Unknown X-1047 and X-183. X-1047 was determined to be the remains of two separate individuals and redesignated X-1047A and X-1047B after separation. The three sets of remains were buried in the American Battle Monuments Commission cemeteries in 2017.

Volunteers notified the DPAA about the burials of unknown service members which could be related to the B-17 crash. A DPAA historian researched the claim and declared that the unidentified remains could very well be from that crash.

In April of 2019, the Department of Defense and the ABMC disinterred three sets of remains and sent them to the DPAA laboratory for identification. Scientists working for the DPAA and for the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System used anthropological evidence and mitochondrial DNA to positively identify one of the sets of remains as belonging to Best on September 3, 2019. The discovery was announced by the DPAA on October 24, 2019.

B-17 damaged in collision with Fw190 in head-on attack

Best’s name is inscribed on the Tablets of the Missing at the Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery in Belgium. A rosette will be placed next to his name to recognize that he has now been identified.

Best was born to Otto and Lena Best from Staunton, Illinois. He was the brother of Leland Elmer Best, Joyce Best and Harold C. Best. He was married to Alma L. Best of Decatur, Illinois, when he died. His remains will be buried in his hometown in the spring of 2020.

Sixteen million Americans served in World War II. Over 400,000 of them died in the war. There are still 72,650 service members who are unaccounted for from WWII. 30,000 of those are listed as possibly recoverable.

Gunners in B-17 bombers were responsible for fighting off enemy fighter planes with machine guns that were either aimed by hand or electrically powered. Half of a bomber crew was typically gunners who worked the top turret, ball turret, waist guns and the tail turret.

Top turret gunners usually served as the flight engineer for the crew. In addition to protecting the plane from attacks from above, he was expected to know all the systems on the plane and keep track of the engines and fuel on the flight.

Warsaw Uprising 1 August 1944

So mr. Kuznetsov can't be described as rusofob, but I can be for using his terms. That's a very interesting and flexible azato's conceptions. I presume it's better to ignore it.

"In the louring morning of 7th November 1941, with the enemy having already approached Moscow at a distance of only 15 miles, nevertheless, Stalin did intrepidly take a military parade in the Red Square as usual to celebrate the 24th anniversary of the Great Revolution. Having learnt of Stalin's speech broadcast during the parade, Hitler was infuriated with Russia's sturdy defiance. Evidently, the Führer and his hangmen did not realize that nothing on earth could daunt Russians."


So mr. Kuznetsov can't be described as rusofob, but I can be for using his terms. That's a very interesting and flexible azato's conceptions. I presume it's better to ignore it.

"In the louring morning of 7th November 1941, with the enemy having already approached Moscow at a distance of only 15 miles, nevertheless, Stalin did intrepidly take a military parade in the Red Square as usual to celebrate the 24th anniversary of the Great Revolution. Having learnt of Stalin's speech broadcast during the parade, Hitler was infuriated with Russia's sturdy defiance. Evidently, the Führer and his hangmen did not realize that nothing on earth could daunt Russians."

Don't panic, mate. Nothing on earth could daunt Proverbs. I'm done with you.

My Personal Apologies to antonina for this defining terms quarrel.




Isn't it? Thanks for reading.

Akcja pod Arsenałem (26 March, 1943) armed attack on a Gestapo van transporting prisoners from the Gestapo headquarters to the Pawiak prison in Warsaw was carried out by Grupy Szturmowe „Szarych Szeregów” (the „Grey Ranks” Storm Groups) The operation was coded as "Meksyk II" („Mexico II”) and took place near the building of the Warsaw Arsenal. Its object was freeing Jan Bytnar „Rudy” (25 other political prisoners were freed as well). The AK lost three men, two were seriously wounded, and died later, one was caught and exacuted. Four Germans were killed and nine wounded.

The operation required careful preparation and perfect synchronization. I enclose a full list of participants

In charge of the operation: Stanislaw Broniewski "Orsza", commander of the „Grey Ranks”

  • "Zośka" Tadeusz Zawadzki, group leader
  • "Anoda" [ame="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Rodowicz"]Jan Rodowicz[/ame], section leader
  • "Bolec" [ame="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadeusz_Chojko"]Tadeusz Chojko[/ame],
  • "Heniek" Henryk Kupis,
  • "Stasiek" Stanisław Pomykalski,
  • "Maciek" Sławomir Bittner, section leader
  • "Kołczan" [ame="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugeniusz_Koecher"]Eugeniusz Koecher[/ame],
  • "Sem" Wiesław Krajewski,
  • "Słoń" [ame="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerzy_Gawin"]Jerzy Gawin[/ame], section leader
  • "Buzdygan" Tadeusz Krzyżewicz , severely wounded, died later
  • "Cielak" [ame="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadeusz_Szajnoch"]Tadeusz Szajnoch[/ame],
  • "Alek" [ame="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maciej_Aleksy_Dawidowski"]Aleksy Dawidowski[/ame] , section leader, severely wounded, died later
  • "Hubert" [ame="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubert_Lenk"]Hubert Lenk[/ame] , caught and executed on 7 May 1943 in the ruins of the ghetto
  • "Mirski" [ame="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerzy_Zapadko"]Jerzy Zapadko[/ame]
  • "Giewont" Władysław Cieplak, group leader
  • "Kuba" [ame="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konrad_Okolski"]Konrad Okolski[/ame], section leader
  • "Kadłubek" Witold Bartnicki,
  • "Jur" [ame="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrzej_Wolski"]Andrzej Wolski[/ame],
  • "Katoda" Józef Saski, section leader
  • "Kopeć" Stanisław Jastrzębski,
  • "Rawicz" Żelisław Olech,
  • "Tytus" Tytus Trzciński, section leader
  • "Felek" [ame="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feliks_Pendelski"]Feliks Pendelski[/ame],
  • "Ziutek" Józef Pleszczyński,
  • "Pająk" Jerzy Tabor,
  • "Kapsiut" Kazimierz Łodziński,
  • "Jeremi" [ame="http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerzy_Zborowski"]Jerzy Zborowski[/ame], driver
  • "Jurek TK" Jerzy Pepłowski,

To visualize how Akcja pod Arsenalem was done, here’s a video (the actual stopping of the van occurs somewhere in the middle). The film is pretty old, but it reconstructs the events quite accurately. Is you can see at the beginning, the AK had an informer in the Gestapo headquarters. It was him who put a call through, informing the operation leader that the van carrying "Rudy" is leaving for the Pawiak prison.

[ame="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzQGKGIDwe8&feature=related"]‪Akcja pod ArsenaÅ‚em 8/10‬‏ - YouTube[/ame]


I've received a private message from one of the Historumites, voicing concern about the recent posts on this thread. It's been suggested that the described activities of the underground scout formations ("Grey Ranks"), including the "minor sabotage" and operation "Akcja pod Arsena&#322em" might have a negative effect on teenage viewers. The propriety of posting photos of child-soldiers was also questioned.

Frankly, I was more amazed than I can say: the book "Kamienie na Szaniec" (describing "Akcja pod Arsena&#322em") is on the official school reading list here and every kid in Poland knows it, on the anniversary of the raid all Warsaw scout teams organize role play games commemorating the operation. As children, we grew up on stories of armed raids of the AK underground and "minor sabotage" activities. I don't think it's made anyone a homicidal maniac or juvenile delinquent.

Then I realized there might be a culture-clash issue here - with view to the school shootings problem in the USA, I understand the message was triggered by genuine concern. However, I find it had to believe the material I posted could have a negative effect on anyone. Harris and Kleebold were fascinated with Hitler, the Nazis and combat gear (if anything, it's the Waffen SS thread, which might attract guys fascinated with such phoney macho-stuff ) I don't believe a story like "Akcja pod Arsena&#322em" would attract them, there was too much Good involved.

As for the child soldiers, they weren't "hired" by the fighting AK units, like the "child soldiers" in Africa today. They were all volunteers, boy scouts, serving as go-betweens or paperboys distributing AK press. Yes, their greatest dream was to get a gun and shoot, those wounded and dying insisted that "AK soldier" should be written on their grave (even the 13 year olds). There's a statue of a "Little Insurgent" in the Warsaw Old Town, dedicated to their memory. Come to think of it, it was terrible but we grew up with this.


Larry Ellison was born in New York City, to an unwed Jewish mother. [5] [6] [7] [8] His biological father was an Italian-American United States Army Air Corps pilot. After Ellison contracted pneumonia at the age of nine months, his mother gave him to her aunt and uncle for adoption. [8] He did not meet his biological mother again until he was 48. [9]

Ellison moved to Chicago's South Shore, then a middle-class neighborhood. He remembers his adoptive mother as warm and loving, in contrast to his austere, unsupportive, and often distant adoptive father, who had chosen the name Ellison to honor his point of entry into the United States, Ellis Island. Louis Ellison was a government employee who had made a small fortune in Chicago real estate, only to lose it during the Great Depression. [8]

Although Ellison was raised in a Reform Jewish home by his adoptive parents, who attended synagogue regularly, he remained a religious skeptic. Ellison states: "While I think I am religious in one sense, the particular dogmas of Judaism are not dogmas I subscribe to. I don't believe that they are real. They're interesting stories. They're interesting mythology, and I certainly respect people who believe these are literally true, but I don't. I see no evidence for this stuff." At age thirteen, Ellison refused to have a bar mitzvah celebration. [10] Ellison says that his fondness for Israel is not connected to religious sentiments, but rather due to the innovative spirit of Israelis in the technology sector. [11]

Ellison attended South Shore High School in Chicago [12] and later was admitted to University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign and was enrolled as a premed student. [12] At Illinois, he was named science student of the year [13] [14] but later withdrew without taking final exams after his sophomore year, because his adoptive mother had just died. After spending the summer of 1966 in California, he then attended the University of Chicago for one term, studying physics and mathematics. [12] He did not take any exams and at Chicago he first encountered computer design. In 1966, aged 22, he moved to Berkeley, California.

While working at Ampex in the early 1970s, he became influenced by Edgar F. Codd's research on relational database design for IBM, which led in 1977 to the formation of what became Oracle. Oracle became a successful database vendor to mid- and low-range systems, later competing with Sybase (created 1984) and Microsoft SQL Server (a port of Sybase created in 1989) which led to Ellison being listed by Forbes as one of the richest people in the world.

1977–1994 Edit

During the 1970s, after a brief stint at Amdahl Corporation, Ellison began working for Ampex Corporation. His projects included a database for the CIA, which he named "Oracle". Ellison was inspired by a paper written by Edgar F. Codd on relational database systems called "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks". [15] In 1977, he founded Software Development Laboratories (SDL) with two partners and an investment of $2,000 $1,200 of the money was his.

In 1979, the company renamed itself Relational Software Inc., and in 1983, officially became Oracle Systems Corporation after its flagship product, the Oracle Database. Ellison had heard about the IBM System R database, also based on Codd's theories, and wanted Oracle to achieve compatibility with it, but IBM made this impossible by refusing to share System R's code. The initial release of Oracle in 1979 was called Oracle 2 there was no Oracle 1. [ citation needed ] In 1990, Oracle laid off 10% of its workforce (about 400 people) because it was losing money. [16] This crisis, which almost resulted in the company's bankruptcy, came about because of Oracle's "up-front" marketing strategy, in which sales people urged potential customers to buy the largest possible amount of software all at once. The sales people then booked the value of future license sales in the current quarter, thereby increasing their bonuses. This became a problem when the future sales subsequently failed to materialize. Oracle eventually had to restate its earnings twice, and had to settle class-action lawsuits arising from its having overstated its earnings. Ellison would later say that Oracle had made "an incredible business mistake". [17]

Although IBM dominated the mainframe relational database market with its DB2 and SQL/DS database products, it delayed entering the market for a relational database on Unix and Windows operating systems. This left the door open for Sybase, Oracle, Informix, and eventually Microsoft to dominate mid-range systems and microcomputers. Around this time, Oracle fell behind Sybase. From 1990 to 1993, Sybase was the fastest-growing database company and the database industry's darling vendor, but soon it fell victim to merger mania. Sybase's 1996 merger with Powersoft resulted in a loss of focus on its core database technology. In 1993, Sybase sold the rights to its database software running under the Windows operating system to Microsoft Corporation, which now markets it under the name "SQL Server".

In his early years at Oracle, Larry Ellison was named an Award Recipient in the High Technology Category for the EY Entrepreneur of the Year Program. [18]

1994–2010 Edit

In 1994, Informix overtook Sybase and became Oracle's most important rival. The intense war between Informix CEO Phil White and Ellison was front-page Silicon Valley news for three years. In April 1997, Informix announced a major revenue shortfall and earnings restatements. Phil White eventually landed in jail, and IBM absorbed Informix in 2001. Also in 1997, Ellison was made a director of Apple Computer after Steve Jobs returned to the company. Ellison resigned in 2002. With the defeat of Informix and of Sybase, Oracle enjoyed years of industry dominance until the rise of Microsoft SQL Server in the late 1990s and IBM's acquisition of Informix Software in 2001 to complement their DB2 database. As of 2013 [update] Oracle's main competition for new database licenses on UNIX, Linux, and Windows operating systems comes from IBM's DB2 and from Microsoft SQL Server. IBM's DB2 still dominates the mainframe database market.

In 2005, Oracle Corporation paid Ellison a $975,000 salary, a $6,500,000 bonus, and other compensation of $955,100. [19] In 2007, Ellison earned a total compensation of $61,180,524, which included a base salary of $1,000,000, a cash bonus of $8,369,000, and options granted of $50,087,100. [20] In 2008, he earned a total compensation of $84,598,700, which included a base salary of $1,000,000, a cash bonus of $10,779,000, no stock grants, and options granted of $71,372,700. [21] In the year ending May 31, 2009, he made $56.8 million. [22] In 2006, Forbes ranked him as the richest Californian. [23] In April 2009, after a tug-of-war with IBM and Hewlett-Packard, Oracle announced its intent to buy Sun Microsystems. [24] On July 2, 2009, for the fourth year in a row, Oracle's board awarded Ellison another 7 million stock options. [25] On August 22, 2009, it was reported that Ellison would be paid only $1 for his base salary for the fiscal year of 2010, down from the $1,000,000 he was paid in fiscal 2009. [22] [26]

2010–present Edit

The European Union approved Oracle's acquisition of Sun Microsystems on January 21, 2010, and agreed that Oracle's acquisition of Sun "has the potential to revitalize important assets and create new and innovative products". [27] The Sun acquisition also gave Oracle control of the popular MySQL open source database, which Sun had acquired in 2008. [28] On August 9, 2010, Ellison denounced Hewlett-Packard's board for firing CEO Mark Hurd, writing that "the HP board just made the worst personnel decision since the idiots on the Apple board fired Steve Jobs many years ago." (Ellison and Hurd were close personal friends.) [29] Then on September 6, Oracle hired Mark Hurd as co-president alongside Safra Catz. Ellison remained in his current role at Oracle. [30]

In March 2010, the Forbes list of billionaires ranked Ellison as the sixth-richest person in the world and as the third-richest American, with an estimated net worth of US$28 billion. [23] On July 27, 2010, The Wall Street Journal reported that Ellison was the best-paid executive in the last decade, collecting a total compensation of US$1.84 billion. [31] In September 2011, Ellison was listed on the Forbes list of billionaires as the fifth richest man in the world and was still the third richest American, with a net worth of about $36.5 billion. In September 2012, Ellison was again listed on the Forbes list of billionaires as the third richest American citizen, behind Bill Gates and Warren Buffett, with a net worth of $44 billion. In October 2012, he was listed just behind David Hamilton Koch as the eighth richest person in the world, according to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index. [32] Ellison owns stakes in Salesforce.com, NetSuite, Quark Biotechnology Inc. and Astex Pharmaceuticals. [33] [34] In June 2012, Ellison agreed to buy 98 percent of the Hawaiian island of Lana'i from David Murdock's company, Castle & Cooke. The price was reported to be between $500 million and $600 million. [35] In 2005, Ellison agreed to settle a four-year-old insider-trading lawsuit by offering to pay $100 million to charity in Oracle's name. [36]

In 2013, according to the Wall Street Journal, Ellison earned $94.6 million. [37] On September 18, 2014, Ellison appointed Mark Hurd to CEO of Oracle from his former position as President Safra Catz was also made CEO, moving from her former role as CFO. Ellison assumed the positions of chief technology officer and executive chairman. [38] [39]

In November 2016, Oracle bought NetSuite for $9.3 billion. Ellison owned 35% of NetSuite at the time of the purchase making him $3.5 billion personally. [40]

In 2017, Forbes estimated that Ellison was the 4th richest person in tech. [41]

In June 2018, Ellison's net worth was about $54.5 billion, according to Forbes. [42]

In December 2018, Ellison became a director on the board of Tesla, Inc., after purchasing 3 million shares earlier that year. [43] [3]

As of December 31, 2019, Ellison owns 36.2% of the shares of Oracle Corporation, [44] and 1.7% of the shares of Tesla.

In April 2020, he launched a wellness company Hawaiian Island Lanai called Sensei. [45]

As of June 2020, Ellison is said to be the seventh wealthiest person in the world, with a net worth of $66.8 billion. [46]

In December 2020, his net worth increased by $2.5 billion in a single week as Oracle's stock jumped by 4% between November 27 and December 4. [47]

Ellison has been married and divorced four times: [48]

  • Adda Quinn from 1967 to 1974.
  • Nancy Wheeler Jenkins from 1977 to 1978. They married six months before Ellison founded Software Development Laboratories. In 1978, the couple divorced. Wheeler gave up any claim on her husband's company for $500.
  • Barbara Boothe from 1983 to 1986. Boothe was a former receptionist at Relational Software Inc. (RSI). [citation needed] They had two children, David and Megan, who are film producers at Skydance Media and Annapurna Pictures, respectively. [49]
  • Melanie Craft, a romance novelist, from 2003 to 2010. They married on December 18, 2003, at his Woodside estate. Ellison's friend Steve Jobs, former CEO and co-founder of Apple Inc., was the official wedding photographer, [50] and Representative Tom Lantos officiated. They divorced in 2010. [51]

Ellison made a brief cameo appearance in the 2010 movie Iron Man 2. [52] In 2010, Ellison purchased a 50% share of the BNP Paribas Open tennis tournament. [53] Ellison owns many exotic cars, including an Audi R8 and a McLaren F1. His favorite is the Acura NSX, which he was known to give as gifts each year during its production. [34] Ellison is also reportedly the owner of a Lexus LFA. [54]

Controversies Edit

Ellison has courted controversy in the past with not always good natured statements about rival businessmen & firms [55]

His habit of hiring private detectives against rival firms & allegedly ex-partners has also made news. [56]

Yachts Edit

With the economic downturn of 2010, Ellison sold his share of Rising Sun, the 12th largest yacht in the world, making David Geffen the sole owner. [57] The vessel is 453 feet (138 metres) long, [58] and reportedly cost over $200 million to build. He downsized to Musashi, a 288-foot (88-metre) yacht built by Feadship. [59]

Yacht racing Edit

Ellison competes in yachting through Oracle Team USA. [60] Following success racing Maxi yachts, Ellison founded BMW Oracle Racing to compete for the 2003 Louis Vuitton Cup.

In 2002, Ellison's Oracle's team introduced kite yachting into the America's Cup environment. Kite sail flying lasting about 30 minutes was achieved during testing in New Zealand. [61]

BMW Oracle Racing was the "Challenger of Record" on behalf of the Golden Gate Yacht Club of San Francisco for the 2007 America's Cup in Valencia, Spain, until eliminated from the 2007 Louis Vuitton Cup challenger-selection series in the semi-finals. On February 14, 2010, Ellison's yacht USA 17 won the second race (in the best of three "deed of gift" series) of the 33rd America's Cup, after winning the first race two days earlier. Securing a historic victory, Ellison and his BMW Oracle team became the first challengers to win a "deed of gift" match. The Cup returned to American shores for the first time since 1995. Ellison served as a crew member in the second race. [62] Previously, Ellison had filed several legal challenges, through the Golden Gate Yacht Club, against the way that Ernesto Bertarelli (also one of the world's richest men) proposed to organize the 33rd America's Cup following the 2007 victory of Bertarelli's team Alinghi. [62] [63] The races were finally held [ clarification needed ] in February 2010 in Valencia.

On September 25, 2013, Ellison's Oracle Team USA defeated Emirates Team New Zealand to win the 34th America's Cup in San Francisco Bay, California. [64] Oracle Team USA had been penalized two points in the final for cheating by some team members during the America's Cup World Series warm-up events. [65] The Oracle team came from a 1–8 deficit to win 9–8, in what has been called "one of the greatest comebacks in sports history". [66]

Oracle Racing lost the 2017 America's Cup to Team New Zealand.

In 2019, Ellison, in conjunction with Russell Coutts, started the SailGP international racing series. [67] The series used F50 foiling catamarans, the fastest class of boat in history with regattas held across the globe. Ellison committed to five years of funding to support the series until it could become self sustaining. The first season was successful with global audiences of over 1.8 billion. [68] [69] [70]

Aviation Edit

Ellison is a licensed pilot who has owned several aircraft. [9] He was cited by the city of San Jose, California, for violating its limits on late-night takeoffs and landings from San Jose Mineta International Airport by planes weighing more than 75,000 pounds (34,019 kg). In January 2000, Ellison sued over the interpretation of the airport rule, contending that his Gulfstream V aircraft "is certified by the manufacturer to fly at two weights: 75,000 pounds, and at 90,000 pounds for heavier loads or long flights requiring more fuel. But the pilot only lands the plane in San Jose when it weighs 75,000 pounds or less, and has the logs to prove it." [71] US District Judge Jeremy Fogel ruled in Ellison's favor in June 2001, calling for a waiver for Ellison's jet, but did not invalidate the curfew. [72]

Ellison also owns at least two military jets: a SIAI-Marchetti S.211, a training aircraft designed in Italy, and a decommissioned MiG-29, which the US government has refused him permission to import. [9]

Tennis Edit

In 2009, Larry purchased the Indian Wells Tennis Garden tennis facility in California's Coachella Valley and the Indian Wells Masters tournament, both of which he still owns.

Homes Edit

Ellison styled his estimated $110 million Woodside, California, estate after feudal Japanese architecture, complete with a man-made 2.3-acre (0.93 ha) lake and an extensive seismic retrofit. [73] In 2004 and 2005 he purchased more than 12 properties in Malibu, California, worth more than $180 million. The $65 million Ellison spent on five contiguous lots at Malibu's Carbon Beach made this the most costly residential transaction in United States history until Ron Perelman sold his Palm Beach, Florida, compound for $70 million later that same year. [74] His entertainment system cost $1 million, and includes a rock concert-sized video projector at one end of a drained swimming pool, using the gaping hole as a giant subwoofer. [75]

In early 2010, Ellison purchased the Astor's Beechwood Mansion – formerly the summer home of the Astor family – in Newport, Rhode Island, for $10.5 million. [76]

In 2011 he purchased the 249-acre Porcupine Creek Estate and private golf course in Rancho Mirage, California, for $42.9 million. [76] The property was formerly the home of Yellowstone Club founders Edra and Tim Blixseth, and was sold to Ellison by creditors following their divorce and bankruptcy. [77]

On June 21, 2012, the governor of Hawaii, Neil Abercrombie, declared that Ellison had signed an agreement to buy most of the island of Lanai from the Castle & Cooke company, owned by David H. Murdock. Following the purchase Ellison owns 98% of Lanai, Hawaii's sixth-largest island. [78]

In December 2020, he left California and moved to Hawaii. [79]

Philanthropy Edit

In 1992 Ellison shattered his elbow in a high-speed bicycle crash. After receiving treatment at University of California, Davis, Ellison donated $5 million to seed the Lawrence J. Ellison Musculo-Skeletal Research Center. In 1998, the Lawrence J. Ellison Ambulatory Care Center opened on the Sacramento campus of the UC Davis Medical Center. [80]

To settle an insider trading lawsuit arising from his selling nearly $1 billion of Oracle stock, a court allowed Ellison to donate $100 million to his own charitable foundation without admitting wrongdoing. A California judge refused to allow Oracle to pay Ellison's legal fees of $24 million. Ellison's lawyer had argued that if Ellison were to pay the fees, that could be construed as an admission of guilt. His charitable donations to Stanford University raised questions about the independence of two Stanford professors who evaluated the case's merits for Oracle. [81] In response to the September 11 terrorist attacks of 2001, Ellison made a controversial offer to donate software to the federal government [82] that would have enabled it to build and run a national identification database and to issue ID cards. [83]

Forbes ' 2004 list of charitable donations made by the wealthiest 400 Americans stated that Ellison had donated [ when? ] $151,092,103, about 1% of his estimated personal wealth. [84] In June 2006, Ellison announced he would not honor his earlier pledge of $115 million to Harvard University, claiming it was due to the departure of former President Lawrence Summers. Oracle spokesman Bob Wynne announced, "It was really Larry Summers' brainchild and once it looked like Larry Summers was leaving, Larry Ellison reconsidered . [I]t was Larry Ellison and Larry Summers that had initially come up with this notion." [85] In 2007 Ellison pledged $500,000 to fortify a community centre in Sderot, Israel, after discovering that the building was not fortified against rocket attacks. [86] Other charitable donations by Ellison include a $10 million donation to the Friends of the Israel Defense Forces in 2014. [87] In 2017 Ellison again donated to the Friends of the Israel Defense Forces, this time for $16.6 million. His donation was intended to support the construction of well-being facilities on a new campus for co-ed conscripts. [88]

In August 2010 a report listed Ellison as one of the 40 billionaires who had signed "The Giving Pledge". [89] [90]

In May 2016 Ellison donated $200 million to the University of Southern California for establishing a cancer research center: the Lawrence J. Ellison Institute for Transformative Medicine of USC. [91]

Ellison was critical of NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden, saying that "Snowden had yet to identify a single person who had been 'wrongly injured' by the NSA's data collection". [92] He has donated to both Democratic and Republican politicians, [93] and in late 2014 hosted Republican Senator Rand Paul at a fundraiser at his home. [94] [95]

Ellison was one of the top donors to Conservative Solutions PAC, a super PAC supporting Marco Rubio's 2016 presidential bid. As of February 2016, Ellison had given $4 million overall to the PAC. [96] In 2020, Ellison allowed Donald Trump to have a fundraiser at his Rancho Mirage estate, [97] [98] but Ellison was not present. [99]

In 1997, Ellison received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement. [100] [101]

In 2013, Ellison was inducted into the Bay Area Business Hall of Fame. [102]

In 2019, the Lawrence J. Ellison Institute for Transformative Medicine of USC honored Ellison with the first Rebels With A Cause Award in recognition of his generous support through the years. [103]

August 16, 1944 – Eva Ginzova

Eva Ginzova is one of the few teenage diarists from the Holocaust to have had a sibling who also wrote. Petr Ginz, her brother, was a prolific author and artist in his own right. Eva was proud of his education and his accomplishments. He appears as a subject in many of her diary entries and it is clear that his well-being was as important to her as her own.

Eva was younger than Petr, and it is obvious that she looked up to him. Because he was older, he had been sent to the Theresienstadt “camp-ghetto” two years earlier. When she arrived, she discovered that Petr had already established a reputation among his peers. On August 16, 1944, she wrote, “When I arrived, one girl asked me whether Petr was my brother, and said that he was the most intelligent boy from the heim [children’s home]. I was very pleased and very proud of him.”

Petr’s presence in Theresienstadt was a great comfort to Eva, but one that would not last. On September 28, 1944, they were separated when Petr was sent to Auschwitz. After the war was long over, Eva wrote one last entry in her diary. It was the heartbroken observation that Petr had not come home. Eva survived the Holocaust, Petr did not.

Eva’s diary reminds us that no one lives apart from the influences of others. Our parents, siblings, and friends help to make us who we are. Their lives and legacies stay with us as long as we live. One of the greatest crimes of the Holocaust was the splitting of families, especially when murder made the separation permanent.

Read more about Theresienstadt (Terezin Ghetto).

Learn more about Eva Ginzova (now Chava Pressberger), her career as an artist, and the publication of her brother’s diary.

555th Parachute Infantry Battalion [Triple Nickles] (1944-1947)

On August 6, 1945, Private First Class Malvin L. Brown was killed after falling 140 feet during a “let-down” from a tree while fighting a forest fire in the Umpqua National Forest in southern Oregon. Brown was the first smokejumper to die while fighting a wildfire since the program’s inception by the U.S. Forest Service in 1939. He was also the only member of the “Triple Nickles” 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion to die in the line of duty during World War II.

The 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion was nicknamed “Triple Nickles” because of its numerical designation and because 17 of its original 24 “colored test platoon” were from the 92nd Infantry (“Buffalo Soldiers”) Division of the U.S. Army. Their identifying symbol is three buffalo nickels joined in a triangle and the oddly-spelled “Nickle” is one of their trademarks.

During the winter of 1943-1944, the first black paratroopers in army history began training at Fort Benning, Georgia. After several months, the segregated unit was moved to Camp Mackall, North Carolina, where it was reorganized and redesignated as Company A of the newly activated 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion. Unlike other African American infantry units officered by whites, the 555th was entirely black since six black officers also completed jump training.

By late 1944, the first platoon of Triple Nickles was fully trained, combat-ready, and alerted for European duty. The men were anxious to fight Hitler’s Nazis in Europe or the Japanese in the Pacific. Instead, racial military politics and changing war conditions kept the paratroopers home and away from the war they had been trained to fight.

On May 5, 1945, a Japanese incendiary balloon explosion killed the pregnant wife of a local minister and five young members of their church while on a Sunday picnic near Bly, Oregon. The Army kept the details of the incident a secret as they didn’t want members of the public to panic regarding the thousands of such balloon bombs that had been launched by the Japanese toward American shores, intended to start major forest fires and create just such fears.

In early 1945, the Triple Nickles had received secret orders from the War Department called “Operation Firefly.” They were sent to Pendleton, Oregon, assigned to the 9th Services Command, and trained by the Forest Service to become history’s first military smokejumpers. They were specifically designated to respond to Japanese balloon bombs.

During that year’s fire season, the Triple Nickles made more than 1,200 individual jumps and helped control at least 28 major fires although none were believed to have been caused by the Japanese. The paratroopers suffered numerous injuries but only one fatality: the day of Malvin Brown’s death, August 6, 1945, was also the day the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. Both events made the front page of the local newspaper in Roseburg, Oregon but the pioneer paratrooper’s death was barely noticed by comparison and soon forgotten.

In December 1947, the Triple Nickles were deactivated and their personnel were assigned to other Army units. One group, the 2nd Airborne Ranger Company, became the first black unit to make a combat jump during the Korean War. Ultimately, the Triple Nickles served in more airborne units, in peace and in war, than any other parachute group in history.

17 August 1944 - History

As follows is a transcript of the monthly report from the 603rd Squadron to the 1st Bombardment Division. Many names are mentioned in the report. You may wish to use your web browser's Find Command to search for a particular individual. If you are unsure about the spelling, try the first few letters.

Eighth Air Force
1st Bombardment Division
1st Combat Bombardment Wing (H)
398th Bombardment Group (H)
603rd Bombardment Group (H)

603 Bomb Squadron
August 1st to August 31st 1944

Eighth Air Force
1st Bombardment Division
398th Bombardment Group (H)

Period Covered from August 1, 1944 to August 31, 1944
Prepared by
David M. Hall, 1st Lt., A.C.

Squadron History
603rd Bombardment Squadron (H)

August 1, 1944

Target: Melun-Villaroche, France.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 3, 1944

Target: Saarbrucken, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 4, 1944

Target: Peenmeunde, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

2nd Lt. John S. MacArthur (later promoted to 1st Lt., August 12) and his crew were hit by flak over target area and are reported missing in action.

The members of the crew were:

Editor’s Notes

August 5, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 6, 1944

Target: Brandenburg, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

Captain Robert L. Hopkins, Flight Commander, let the low group.

August 8, 1944

Target: Bretteville Le Rabet, France.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

Captain Meyer C. Wagner Jr., Squadron Commanding Officer and Captain Robert L. Hopkins, Flight Commander who led the 398th Group on today’s mission were hit by flak over the target and are now reported missing in action.

The crew lost included the 3rd Squadron Commanding Officer since reaching the European Theater of Operations, the last of the original Flight Commanders and the Squadron Navigator, 1st Lt. Vonn Wernecke.

The members of the crew were:

Name Rank Position Home Address
1 Hopkins, Robert L. Capt. Pilot Mulberry Grove, Illinois
2 Wagner, Meyer C. Capt. C.A. [603rd Commanding Officer as C.A. would have sat in the Co-Pilot's seat] Warwick Hotel, Houston, Texas
3 Kushera, Frederick J. Jr. 2nd Lt. Co-Pilot (flew tail gun position) 2022 Dorland Drive, Whittier, California
4 Wernecke, Vonn (NMI) 1st Lt. [Squadron] Navigator 13005 – 8th Avenue N.W., Seattle, Washington
5 Stitz, Thomas J. 2nd Lt. Navigator 114 West High Street, Canal Fulton, Ohio
6 Arnold, Charles (NMI) 2nd Lt. Bombardier Marseilles, Illinois
7 Germiller, William J. T/Sgt. Engineer/ Top Turret Gunner 23 Hoffman Avenue, Poughkeepsie, New York
8 Gibeau, Raymond G. T/Sgt. Radio Operator Bellaire, Kansas
9 Hochadel, James F. S/Sgt. Ball Turret Gunner 736 Elm Street, Youngtown, Ohio
10 Werner, John I. S/Sgt. Left Waist Gunner 1780 – 142nd Avenue, San Leandro, California

Editor’s Notes
  1. S/Sgt. James F. Hochadel, Ball Turret Gunner and 2nd Lt. Charles Arnold, Bombardier were killed in action.
  2. The remaining 8 men became Prisoners of War, with two escaping after capture. These were Captain Meyer C. Wagner, Jr. and 1st Lt. Vonnerlin Wernecke.

Captain James G. Davidson, Jr., who has been Squadron Operations Officer for over a month was made Squadron Commanding Officer. The spot for Squadron Navigator is still open.

Technical Sergeant L.D. Mason, engineer gunner on Lt. Engel’s crew at the completion of 27 missions has finished his tour in the European Theater of Operations.

August 9, 1944

Target: Saarbrucken, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

Due to bad weather the Group bombed a target of opportunity instead of the primary.

August 10, 1944

1st Lt. Robert W. Kaufman came out on Special Order #20 as a Squadron Flight Commander.

August 11, 1944

Captain Harvery H. Latson, a Squadron Flight Commander led the Low Group to Brest, France.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 12, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

The following officers were promoted from Second Lieutenant to First Lieutenant:

  1. Edward C. Jordan
  2. J.J. Lee
  3. W.L. Meyran
  4. L.M. Sundheim
  5. E.W. Klatte
  6. R.W. Lehner, and
  7. M.W. Magnan

Two other men, who previously have been reported missing in action also made First Lieutenant:

2nd Lt. Linder Tanksley, bombardier on 1st Lt. Dean L. Foster’s crew became the first member of the Squadron to actually complete the required number of combat missions. He flew a total 32 missions.

August 13, 1944

Captain Harvey H. Latson flew with Colonel Frank P. Hunter, Jr., in the lead ship to Le Manoir, France.

Captain James G. Davidson, Jr., Squadron Commanding Officer flew with 1st Lt. W.J. Durtschi in the group deputy lead position.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

2nd Lt. J.W. Beck, navigator, completed his tour of duty in the E.T.O. with 31 missions, as did Technical Sergeant L.G. Nance, Jr., radio operator gunner, with 29 missions.

August 15, 1944

See attached loading list. (not transcribed).

2nd Lt. John F. Naoiti, Navigator, was promoted to First Lieutenant.

2nd Lt. Arthur Silverman, Co-Pilot, finished his tour with 33 missions as did 1st Lt. J. Gurney, Bombardier, with 30 missions.

August 16, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

The following officers were promoted from Second Lieutenant to First Lieutenant:

The following men completed their tour of duty:

  1. 1st Lt. Anthony J. Jellen, navigator – 33 missions
  2. 1st Lt. Dean L. Foster, pilot – 32 missions
  3. Technical Sergeant J.C. Bird, engineer gunner – 30 missions
  4. Technical Sergeant W. Hineman, Jr., radio operator gunner – 32 missions
  5. Staff Sergeant F. P. Devaney, ball turret gunner – 32 missions
  6. Staff Sergeant Dwight Hinkle, tail gunner – 25 missions
  7. Staff Sergeant Arthur Wilkinson, waist gunner – 29 missions

August 18, 1944

The following officers were promoted from Second Lieutenant to First Lieutenant:

  1. Carlotho Turner
  2. Robert E. Ullom
  3. Arthur Silverman
  4. Roy W. Wilkins
  5. Raymond A. Winkler
  6. William A. Wright, Jr.

August 19, 1944

The Squadron enlisted men were given a party in the combat mess hall.

Second Lieutenant John O. Hobbs was promoted to 1st Lieutenant.

August 21, 1944

Under Special Order #22 Captain Harvey H. Latson became Squadron Operations Officer and 1st Lt. L.W. Sundheim became Squadron Navigator.

The following officers were promoted from Second Lieutenant to First Lieutenant:

August 24, 1944

After seven consequitive “stand-downs” mostly due to bad weather the Group finally flew a mission to Kolleda, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

1st Lt. Charles E. Khourie and crew flew 1st combat combat mission.

The other members of the crew who reported to the Squadron August 6 are:

  1. 2nd Lt. John J. Leyden, Jr.
  2. 2nd Lt. Frederico Gonzalez
  3. 2nd Lt. Jack E. Kutchback
  4. Sergeant Robert C. Mayfield
  5. Sergeant William A. Schumate
  6. Sergeant Howard E. Rogers
  7. Corporal Joseph J. Kelly, Jr.
  8. Corporal John L. Crecelius, and
  9. Corporal Paul E. Russell

August 25, 1944

Target: Neu Brandenberg, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 26, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

The following officers completed their combat tours:

  1. 1st Lt. Henry Timbrook, Jr., navigator – 33 missions
  2. 1st Lt. John F. Naioti, navigator –32 missions
  3. 1st Lt. P.F. Heitman, navigator – 33 missions

August 27, 1944

The group was recalled due to weather just a short distance from the target Schonefeld, Germany. The 603rd Squadron was stood down. However, Squadron ships were used on the mission.

1st Lt. J.P. Baker, navigator, flew in a PFF ship with the 601st Squadron.

August 28, 1944

The following new men entered the Squadron as replacement:

  1. 2nd Lt. Kenneth S. Hastings
  2. 2nd Lt. Donald J. Decleene
  3. 2nd Lt. Oral B. Birch
  4. Corporal John S. Bourquin
  5. Corporal James J. Briody
  6. Corporal Wilbur F. Lucas
  7. Corporal Donald B. Colbert
  8. Corporal Oliver W. Bradford
  9. Corporal Kenneth A. Green

August 29, 1944

2nd Lt. George Potter enters the Squadron as a Mickey Navigator.

August 30, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

Captain Jack C. Novak, who recently was promoted from First Lieutenant, completed his tour of duty with 32 missions.

Watch the video: 17 Αυγούστου, 1944: Το Μπλόκο της Κοκκινιάς