Frank Beresford

Frank Beresford

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Frank Beresford was born in Chesterfield on 8th October 1910. An inside-forward, he played football for Ouston Park before joining Doncaster Rovers in 1931. Over the next two seasons he scored 10 goals in 56 games.

In 1933 Beresford signed for Preston North End. Beresford joined a talented squad that included Robert Kelly, Bill Shankly, Jimmy Dougal, Frank Gallimore, Ted Harper, Jimmy Milne, Billy Hough, Bill Tremelling, John Palethorpe, John Pears, Henry Lowe, George Fitton, George Holdcroft and George Bargh.

Beresford made his debut in a 3-2 win over Manchester United. He kept his place in the team and played in the final 14 games of the season. That year Preston North End finished second to Grimsby Town and were promoted to the First Division.

Beresford played in the first few games in the First Division but eventually lost his place and at the end of the season he moved to Luton Town. While at Preston he had scored 4 goals in 36 games. He only played 12 games for Luton before moving briefly to Crystal Palace.

In 1937 Beresford joined Carlisle United and in two seasons scored 10 goals in 68 games. Beresford played only one game for Bradford City before the outbreak of the Second World War. This ended his professional football career.

Frank Beresford died in 1974.

Frank Beresford - History

Many Palaeolithic sites, first discovered in the late 19th century or early 20th century, lacked . more Many Palaeolithic sites, first discovered in the late 19th century or early 20th century, lacked adequate publication and coherent curation of the finds which were frequently exchanged or sold and dispersed. This study focuses on a number of minor sites that have suffered in this way. The study area is in the parish of West Wickham, Kent, England, now part of the London Borough of Bromley. Three men discovered most of the lithic material found in the study area in the years from 1878 to 1898. All three gave partial accounts of their finds in various contexts during the period 1882 to 1908 and many of these accounts have been located for this study. Parts of their collections have been identified in the collections of two museums. The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent it is now possible to construct a useful account of the Palaeolithic of the Upper Ravensbourne Valley.

Full reference: Beresford, F.R. 2014. A preliminary note on the Palaeolithic sites in the Upper Ravensbourne area, Bromley, Kent. Lithics: the Journal of the Lithic Studies Society 35: 54–58.

Unravelling the Palaeolithic Symposium University of Southampton, January 2016 Many palaeolithic. more Unravelling the Palaeolithic Symposium University of Southampton, January 2016

Beresford Frank Image 1 Preston North End 1934

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Doncaster, Yorkshire born inside forward Frank Beresford began his football career with Owston Park Rangers before joining Doncaster Rovers, making his Football League debut against Halifax Town in October 1931. He made a single further FA Cup appearance in his debut season before breaking into the Doncaster first team in September 1932. A regular performer thereafter, he was bought by Second Division Preston North End in February 1934 after 11 goals in 62 appearances for Rovers, going straight into their team for his debut against Manchester United, and helping Preston to promotion to the top flight as they finished runners up in the Second Division in 1933-34. But he lost his place in December that year, and only made two further appearances for The Lambs before joining Luton Town in May 1935 after 4 goals in 36 appearances for Preston.

After losing his place 7 matches into the new season he was a fringe player at Kenilworth Road until he joined Crystal Palace in December 1936 after 3 goals in 15 appearances, but he made only 3 appearances during his spell at Selhurst Park. He made a move to Carlisle United in the 1937 close season where he was a regular feature for two seasons at Brunton Park, indeed he was an ever present in 1938-39, which proved to be the final season before the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939 forced the abandonment of peacetime football. By that time he had joined Bradford City in the summer of 1939 after 11 goals in 72 appearances for The Cumbrians, and he made a single appearance for The Bantams at New Brighton at the end of August.

During the War Beresford turned out for his old club Doncaster as a guest in their first season, in the East Midlands War League scoring three times in 19 games but retired during the War and didn’t return to the professional game in its aftermath.

His older brother was England international Joe Beresford, who mainly played for Aston Villa and was an FA Cup Finalist with Preston North End in 1937.

John Finstad Lorie Finstad, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. Beresford Bancorporation, Inc. Frank Farrar James Gord Wendy Gord, Defendants-Appellees.

John Finstad Lorie Finstad, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. Beresford Bancorporation, Inc. Frank Farrar James Gord Wendy Gord, Defendants-Appellees.

No. 15-2814

Decided: August 05, 2016

John and Lorie Finstad brought this action alleging Beresford Bancorporation and its president, Frank Farrar, (collectively, “Beresford”) breached the terms of an option contract by selling their former farm to James and Wendy Gord. The Finstads also claim that the Gords tortiously interfered with their contract with Beresford. The district court, 2 exercising jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. § 1332, granted summary judgment in favor of Beresford and the Gords based on the preclusive effect of a prior state-court judgment. See Finstad v. Gord (Finstad I), 844 N.W.2d 913 (N.D. 2014). We affirm.

The Finstads owned and operated a farm in Ransom County, North Dakota. Beresford held a secured interest in the farmland as the result of several loans it made to the Finstads between 2002 and 2004. In 2005, Beresford instituted foreclosure proceedings against the Finstads. In response, the Finstads filed for protection under Chapter 12 of the Bankruptcy Code. The foreclosure action was automatically stayed.

In October 2005, the Finstads and Beresford entered into a settlement agreement to remove the farmland from the bankruptcy proceedings. As part of the agreement, the Finstads executed and delivered to Beresford a quitclaim deed, conveying the Finstads' “rights, title and interest in and to the real estate.” The settlement permitted the Finstads to remain on the land as tenants and gave the Finstads an option to purchase the property back from Beresford. The option price was the balance of the loans owed to Beresford, plus 8% annual interest and less any lease payments made under the settlement agreement. The Finstads' option was annually renewable through March 15, 2010.

After executing the settlement agreement, the Finstads made payments totaling $438,955.57 to Beresford between December 2005 and April 2008. The majority of that sum was the result of a single, unscheduled payment on October 10, 2006, in the amount of $345,000. That payment was financed by a $375,000 loan from the Gords, in exchange for which the Finstads issued the Gords a second mortgage on the farmland.

Beresford sent the Finstads notices of default in March 2007, March 2008, and June 2008. In July 2008, the bank notified the Finstads of its intent to sell the land. Beresford sold its interest in the farmland to the Gords in December 2008 for $64,438.78, the amount that Beresford asserts was remaining on the Finstads' debt. In early 2012, the Gords commenced eviction proceedings, and the Finstads subsequently moved off the property.

In January 2012, the Finstads sued the Gords, Beresford, and another bank holding company in North Dakota state court. In that action, the Finstads alleged that the Finstad-Beresford deed was intended to create an equitable mortgage, not to convey title to the land to Beresford. In support, the Finstads produced a letter from Beresford's president and a title opinion for the local grazing association, describing the Finstad-Beresford deed as a “financing vehicle” that was not intended to effect a change in ownership. Beresford's president also submitted an affidavit stating, “Beresford intended to hold only a mortgage interest in the Finstads' lands and the only interest transferred to the Gords by Beresford was itself a mortgage interest.” The Finstads sought to quiet title in the land and asked for a declaration of their ownership of the land, subject to its equitable mortgage to Beresford and actual mortgage to the Gords.

The North Dakota district court dispensed with the Finstads' claims in two separate orders. In October 2012, the court dismissed the claims against Beresford with prejudice, because the bank “has expressly and fully relinquished all claims of a right, title or interest in the subject property.” One year later, the court granted summary judgment in favor of the Gords. In this order, the court first found that the Finstad-Beresford deed is “clear and unambiguous on its face,” and that parol evidence was therefore inadmissible to show that the Finstads retained an interest in the property as equitable mortgagors. The court then concluded that the Finstads lacked statutory standing to challenge the Beresford-Gord deed because they did not have an interest in the property and were not persons interested under a deed or writings relating to the property. App. 158 (citing N.D. Cent. Code §§ 32–17–01, 32–23–02). Accordingly, the court dismissed the Finstads' complaint “with prejudice and on the merits.” The Finstads appealed only the order granting summary judgment for the Gords, and the North Dakota Supreme Court affirmed. Finstad I, 844 N.W.2d at 918–19.

After losing their appeal, the Finstads filed this action in federal court against Beresford and the Gords. They alleged breach of contract and conversion against Beresford, intentional interference with a contract against the Gords, and the “tort of another damages” against all defendants. The claim for tort of another damages, which authorizes attorney's fees in certain tort actions, is dependent on the Finstads prevailing on the other tort claims alleged in the complaint. Hector v. Metro Ctrs., Inc., 498 N.W.2d 113, 122–23 (N.D. 1993) see Restatement (Second) of Torts § 914(2) (Am. Law Inst. 1979).

Beresford and the Gords each moved for summary judgment, arguing that the preclusive effect of Finstad I barred the federal action. The district court granted both motions. The court first ruled that the doctrine of claim preclusion barred the claims against Beresford because they could have been brought in Finstad I. The court then reasoned that the claims against the Gords failed under the doctrine of issue preclusion because the state court necessarily decided that the Finstads did not have an option to buy the farm back from Beresford.

The Finstads contend that the district court erred by concluding that their claims were barred by Finstad I. Under the Full Faith and Credit Act, 28 U.S.C. § 1738, federal courts “must give to a state-court judgment the same preclusive effect as would be given that judgment under the law of the State in which the judgment was rendered.” Migra v. Warren City Sch. Dist. Bd. of Educ., 465 U.S. 75, 81, 104 S.Ct. 892, 79 L.Ed.2d 56 (1984). North Dakota law therefore controls whether Finstad I bars the claims raised in this case. We review the district court's decision de novo. Edwards v. City of Jonesboro, 645 F.3d 1014, 1019 (8th Cir. 2011).

We first consider whether the doctrine of claim preclusion bars the Finstads' claims against Beresford. Under North Dakota law, the doctrine of claim preclusion “prohibits the relitigation of claims or issues that were raised or could have been raised in a prior action between the same parties or their privies and which was resolved by final judgment in a court of competent jurisdiction.” Hofsommer v. Hofsommer Excavating, Inc., 488 N.W.2d 380, 383 (N.D. 1992). The North Dakota Supreme Court has adopted a four-part test for determining whether claim preclusion applies:

there must be (1) “a final decision on the merits in the first action by a court of competent jurisdiction,” (2) “the same parties, or their privies,” in the second action as in the first, (3) an issue in the second action that was “actually litigated” or that “should have been litigated in the first action,” and (4) “an identity of the causes of action.”

In re Athens/Alpha Gas Corp., 715 F.3d 230, 236 (8th Cir. 2013) (alterations omitted) (quoting Mo. Breaks, LLC v. Burns, 791 N.W.2d 33, 39 (N.D. 2010)).

The Finstads argue that the state court's grant of summary judgment in Finstad I was not a decision on the merits because the court dismissed for lack of standing. This argument misreads Finstad I. Although the court dismissed the claims against the Gords in 2013 for lack of statutory standing, it entered a separate order a year earlier ruling that Beresford has “expressly and fully relinquished all claims of a right, title or interest in the subject property.” An element of the Finstads' action to quiet title required them to show that Beresford asserted an adverse property interest. N.D. Cent. Code § 32–17–01 Dennison v. N.D. Dep't of Human Servs., 640 N.W.2d 447, 453 (N.D. 2002). The state court entered summary judgment because the Finstads could not satisfy this element. The claim against Beresford thus failed on the merits.

The Finstads also contend that this federal case does not involve the same parties as Finstad I, because the Finstads were not “formally adverse” to Beresford in the state court action. But the Finstads named Beresford as a defendant in state court, and they conceded in the district court that “both suits involve the same parties or those in privity.” The Finstads rely on Michigan and Wisconsin law to support a “formally adverse” requirement, but the relevant authorities speak of parties who are “arrayed on opposite sides” of a lawsuit. See Executive Arts Studio, Inc. v. City of Grand Rapids, 391 F.3d 783, 785 (6th Cir. 2004) U.S. Fid. & Guar. Co. v. Goldblatt Bros., 142 Wis.2d 187, 417 N.W.2d 417, 419 (Ct. App. 1987). The Finstads, as state-court plaintiffs, sued Beresford as a defendant, and sought relief from the bank in Finstad I, so the parties were arrayed on opposite sides. We see no basis in the cited authorities or in North Dakota law to conclude that Finstad I did not involve the same parties as this case.

In their reply brief, the Finstads assert that Beresford should be judicially estopped from asserting claim preclusion because the bank led them to believe that they retained an equitable-mortgage interest in the land. “Judicial estoppel prohibits a party from assuming inconsistent or contradictory positions during the course of litigation.” BTA Oil Producers v. MDU Res. Grp., Inc., 642 N.W.2d 873, 879 (N.D. 2002). But there is nothing inconsistent between Beresford's position in Finstad I (i.e., that it had only a mortgage interest in the farm, which it transferred to the Gords) and its present argument that the Finstads' claims are precluded by the state court judgment.

Finally, the Finstads argue that this case does not raise the same cause of action that was actually litigated in Finstad I. Under North Dakota law, however, a prior judgment precludes all claims that “were raised, or could have been raised, in prior actions.” Ungar v. N.D. State Univ., 721 N.W.2d 16, 20 (N.D. 2006) (emphasis added). By the time they filed their complaint in Finstad I in January 2012, the Finstads were aware of all of the material facts alleged in this action, and there was no procedural impediment to the Finstads bringing their breach of contract and conversion claims against Beresford in Finstad I. North Dakota law permits a plaintiff to “join, as independent or alternative claims, as many claims as it has against an opposing party,” N.D. R. Civ. P. 18(a), and a plaintiff may do so “regardless of consistency.” Id. R. 8(d)(3). The Finstads therefore could have alleged breach of contract and conversion as contingent claims in Finstad I. If the court rejected their primary argument that the Finstad-Beresford deed created an equitable mortgage, then they could have proceeded on their alternative theories. But the Finstads elected not to bring the breach of contract and conversion claims in Finstad I, and they are barred from pursuing them in a second action. See Lucas v. Porter, 755 N.W.2d 88, 93-94, 96 (N.D. 2008).

The Finstads also contend that the district court erred by granting summary judgment for the Gords based on issue preclusion. Issue preclusion “forecloses relitigation of issues of either fact or law in a second action based on a different claim, which were necessarily litigated, or by logical and necessary implication must have been litigated, and decided in the prior action.” Ungar, 721 N.W.2d at 21. The district court accepted the Finstads' argument that the state court decision dismissing their claims against the Gords for lack of “standing” was not a judgment on the merits, and that claim preclusion therefore does not apply. That issue is not free from doubt, as the state court ordered the claims dismissed “with prejudice and on the merits,” and this court has explained that a dismissal for lack of “statutory standing” is a “ruling on the merits.” United States v. One Lincoln Navigator 1998, 328 F.3d 1011, 1012, 1014 (8th Cir. 2003) see Steel Co. v. Citizens for a Better Env't, 523 U.S. 83, 97 n.2, 118 S.Ct. 1003, 140 L.Ed.2d 210 (1998). But even assuming for the sake of analysis that Finstad I did not issue a judgment for the Gords on the merits, “an issue actually decided in a non-merits dismissal is given preclusive effect in a subsequent action between the same parties.” Pohlmann v. Bil–Jax, Inc., 176 F.3d 1110, 1112 (8th Cir. 1999) see Restatement (Second) of Judgments § 20 cmt. b & illus. 1, § 27 (Am. Law Inst. 1982).

The Finstads allege in this action that the Gords intentionally interfered with their option contract to purchase back the farmland. To prevail on this claim, the Finstads must show that they had a contract with Beresford to purchase the property. Thimjon Farms P'ship v. First Int'l Bank & Trust, 837 N.W.2d 327, 333 (N.D. 2013). In dismissing the claims against the Gords, the state court necessarily concluded that the Finstads did not have a contract to purchase the farmland—otherwise, the Finstads would have been permitted to challenge the Beresford-Gord deed. The Finstads incorrectly assert that “[t]he only issue actually litigated in Finstad I was the issue of who owned the farm.” Although the claims presented in Finstad I involved who owned the farm, the state court resolved the case on the ground that “the Finstads do not have any interest in the property.” Finstad I, 844 N.W.2d at 919. The final resolution of that issue by the North Dakota courts is binding in subsequent litigation between the Finstads and the Gords.

In their reply brief, the Finstads argue that only one of the state district court's two alternative grounds was affirmed by the state supreme court, and that the federal district court mistakenly relied on a ruling of the state district court that lacked preclusive effect. This contention misconstrues the summary judgment order and supreme court opinion in Finstad I. The Finstads brought two claims in Finstad I: a quiet title action and a declaratory judgment action. The state district court entered separate conclusions of law on these two claims. First, in ¶ 3(e) of the opinion, the court concluded that the Finstads lacked standing to quiet title because they “had no estate or interest in the real property.” See N.D. Cent. Code § 32–17–01. Then, in ¶ 3(f), the court ruled that the Finstads lacked standing to seek declaratory relief because they were not “persons interested under a deed or other writings relating to the real property.” See id. § 32–23–02. These two conclusions were not alternative holdings each resolved a separate claim in the complaint. Thus, in affirming the grant of summary judgment for the Gords on all claims, the state supreme court affirmed both conclusions. Because the Finstad I court necessarily decided that the Finstads lacked a contractual interest in the farmland, the Finstads are barred from relitigating that issue here.

The judgment of the district court is affirmed.

2. The Honorable Ralph R. Erickson, Chief Judge, United States District Court for the District of North Dakota.

Frank Beresford - History

Siamese Cat History - Royal Siamese cat 1911

Encyclopedia Britannica - Photo, R. C. Ryan

Duen Ngai, Kalohom and Khromata (The first progeny in 1905).

A litter by "Tachin". Owned by Lady Marcus Beresford. (photo: J. Fall, Baker Street.)

Litter of Siamese kittens belonging to Lady Marcus Beresford. (Photo: J. Fall, Baker St. W.)

Pais OK Siamese, belonging

Mrs. Robinson's "Champion Wankee"

Seal Point Male Born 1895

Seal Point Male Born 1899

Celebrities & Famous Persons With Siamese Cats

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"Seal Point Siamese", Illustrated in "The Cat: It's Points & Management In

Health & Disease, Author: Frank Townend Barton 1908 Everett & Co.

Siamese Cat Breed History Explained:

The Siamese is considered to be one of the oldest of the Oriental/Asian cat breeds, and it is believed that the origins of Siamese cats originated from Thailand, formally known as Siam. This ancient Asian land is the source of the breed’s name and its more flattering, legendary reference, “The Royal Cats of Siam”. Known as Royal Points, these cats were honored in such high regard that no one except the king and members of the royal family were permitted to own them.

There seems to be some mystery on how the Siamese made it into Western Culture. The Siamese is also (arguably) the most recognizable breed on the planet. This feline is considered by many to be a “natural” breed, one that developed without the interference of man. Pictures of a Seal Point appeared in the manuscript “Cat- Book Poems”, written in Siam (now Thailand) sometime between 1350 and 1700. Early stories and myths involving the Siamese are plentiful, including fanciful tales that account for the cat’s physical traits.

One such story tells how sacred Siamese temple cats, charged with guarding a valuable vase, curled their tails around the vase and stared at it with such intensity that their eyes became crossed. Another storey tells of Siamese cats appointed to guard princesses’ rings: The cats kept the rings on their tails and the tail kinds developed to keep the rings from sliding off.

No one is sure exactly when the Siamese was imported to Britain or to America. The earliest documented account tells of a pair of Siamese cats given to the sister of the British consul general in Bangok in 1884, who exhibited the cats the following year in London. However, Siamese cats were exhibited 13 years earlier (in 1871) in the first modern- style cat show at Sydenham, London’s Crystal Palace, where they were disparagingly described as an unnatural, nightmare kind of cat.’ Despite the unfair, bad press, the Siamese rapidly became popular among British cat fanciers. At that time, the Siamese were noted for their crossed eyes, and kinked tails these did not become conformation faults until a lot later. The first British standard, written n 1892 and re- written in 1902, described the Siamese as a ‘striking- looking cat of medium size, if weighty, not showing bulk, as this would detract from the admired svelte appearance, also distinguished by a kink in the tail.’

As stated in “The Book Of the Cat”, by Francis Simpson (1903), Adele Locke founded the Beresford Cat Club, and owned the first registered Siamese “Stockehaven Siam”. Mrs. Locke owned several Siamese, showed them in cat shows, and was well traveled. Pictures of her and her Siamese cats can be found online by using her name as a search keyword.

Siamese Breed Type’s Explained:

In the Siamese world, there are three known and recognized types of Siamese (head/body type and style). There is the Applehead (aka Traditional, Old Style, Original), there is the Classic, and lastly the Wedgehead (aka Show Style, Extreme, Modern).

Applehead Siamese (aka Old Style, Traditional, Original):

According to the breed standard of C.F.F. (

The shape of the Old Style Siamese head is the most important feature of the cat. Old Style Siamese breeders refer to these cats as Applehead Style, therefore the shape of the head is that of an apple, round preferred but oval is acceptable, with no evidence of a wedge shaped head. The muzzle enhances the roundness of the head. The length and width of the muzzle is wider than long, neither pointy of blunt. In profile, the nose has a gentle dip, located at eye level. The ears are medium in size, broad at the base with rounded tips. They are set as much on the top of the head as on the side and are tilted forward. The top eyelid is slightly slanted. The bottom eyelid is slightly rounded. Eye placement should be an eye width apart.

A classic Siamese cat has a moderate wedge shaped head and face, with more definition to the muzzle than the Applehead, with longer legs, and a slimmer, more muscular, strong body. The classic Siamese coat is smooth and lies flatter and tighter to the frame that that of the Applehead, but it is not as fine and thine as the ‘painted on’ coat observed in the Wedgehead. This cat is also substantial in size compared to the Wedgehead. The ears tend to be larger than the Applehead, but smaller than the Wedgehead’s. The body type is not cobby or thick, but rather Muscular, and toned.

Modern Siamese (aka Show Style, Wedgehead, Extreme):

Wedgehead Siamese photo above courtesy of Cindy Schroeder

Wedgehead Siamese Standard According To C.F.A. (

The ideal Siamese is a medium sized, svelte, refined cat with long tapering lines, very lithe but muscular. The head is a long tapering wedge. The total wedge starts at the nose and flares out in straight lines to the tips of the ears forming a triangle, with no break at the whiskers. No less than the width of an eye between the eyes. When the whiskers are smoothed back, the underlying bone structure is apparent. The skull is flat. In profile, a long straight line is seen from the top of the head to the tip of the nose. The ears are strikingly large, pointed, wide at base continuing the lines of the wedge. The eyes are almond shaped. Medium size. Neither protruding nor recessed. Slanted towards the nose in harmony with the lines of the wedge and ears. Uncrossed. The nose is long and straight. A continuation of the forehead with no break.

Siamese Breed Personality Explained:

Siamese cats are a very intelligent, lively, and entertaining cat. They can be very demanding and become totally involved in their owner’s life. Siamese do not like to be ignored, and always have to be the center of attention. They usually regard themselves as people rather than cats. You will never be bored if you own a Siamese cat. Siamese cats have a strong personality and are usually very talkative, often developing loud voices. The chattiness of the Siamese can be developed at a young age, by talking to your Siamese and encouraging its vocal abilities. Many youtube videos of talking Siamese can be found today which help give potential owners insight into this personality trait. The Siamese is a talkative cat, vocalizing about a variety of things. They have many different meows and chirps and their owners come to understand the meanings of these sounds. The loud Siamese call, which non- fanciers often think of when they think of a Siamese, is only used when the cat is particularly distressed about something. Each Siamese has it’s own stress tolerance and finds different alarming, as a result some Siamese cats use their vocal calls more often than others. The Siamese voice is quite legendary and they use it well to communicate with humans. Their meow has been compared to the cries of a human baby.

The Siamese enjoy being with people and have a great need for human companionship. Siamese cats are sometimes described as extroverts. They often bond strongly to a single person. Siamese cats are affectionate, and make a wonderful, entertaining and totally dominating pet. They are loyal, loving, intelligent, and vigilant. These cats are typically active and playful, even as seniors. They are a high energy cat who are always on the go. Please do not confuse high energy with destructiveness or hyperactive, they are energetic, not lazy, not psychotic. Whatever activity you are engaged in, you can be sure that your Siamese cat will be right by you, ready to help out.

There are four recognized color points in the Siamese breed. They are seal point, chocolate point, blue point, and lilac point. I will describe the color points and show pictures of them as examples.

Seal Point Siamese cats have very dark, almost black, seal- brown points, with facial mask, ears, tail, paws, nose flesh and paw pads all the same color.

Of all the color points, they have the widest variation in body color. At a young age, they might be a pale cream, but seal points tend to darken and change with age. Although the fur on their chest, neck, and stomach may stay lighter, their backs tend to darken to a warm- toned caramel beige, and may even turn dark brown, so that later in life there may be little difference in color between the hair on their backs and their tails.

The Chocolate Point generally has ivory- white fur which stays pale throughout their lifetime. This differs from seal points, whose coats tend to darken as they get older. Occasionally though, you may find a chocolate point with cinnamon tones to their coat. This is set off by warm- toned milk- chocolate color points (facial mask, ears, tail, and paws). Their nose flesh and especially their paw pads have a pinkish undertone. If ever in doubt, this pinkish undertone is a good way of telling a chocolate point from a seal point. Chocolate Point cats are less common than seal points and the kittens develop their coloring much later than their darker seal point and blue point counterparts.

The Blue Point is related genetically to the seal point, being a diluted or paler grayish version of the very much darker seal point. It has a cold- toned, deep slate gray bluish points (facial mask, ears, tail, paws, nose flesh, and paw pads), this is all contrasted beautifully by a blush- white body fur which, like that of a seal point which also tends to darken with age.

All members of this point color should have this cool toned, white fur, rather than a warm tone. Occasionally you will find Siamese cats with lighter, silvery blue color schemes, rather than the common slate gray color scheme.

Lilac Points are the palest of the four color points. They feature pinkish toned, light frosty gray ears, tail, paws. Lilacs are sometimes referred to as frost points if the points are very faint. They are the lightest of the four major breed color points (Seal, Chocolate, Blue, Lilac). This color point is actually a paler version - what is known by breeders as a dilute - of the chocolate point.

Everything about a lilac point should be pale, from their ears to their paws. Their nose flesh and paw pads have a pale pink undertone and they should have light cream or magnolia colored (not pure white) coats. Which would stay pale white throughout their lives.

Due to it’s popularity and beauty, the breed has been incorporated into the matrix of many modern cat breeds, including the Ocicat, Himalayan, Burmese, Tonkinese, Ragdoll, Snowshoe, and a myriad of Oriental breed offshoots like the Oriental Short hair, Oriental Longhair, Color Point Short hair, Color Point Long Hair, Balinese and Javanese.

Although the Wedge head Siamese is favored in the show ring as the breed standard, the apple head (aka Old Style, Traditional) has an enthusiastic following of breeders, fanciers, owners who which to perpetuate and preserve the Applehead Siamese breed. As a fancier I believe the Applehead’s rounder, heavier body style is closer to the original type that existed many years ago. These cats can live anywhere from 17 to mid 20’s as long as they are kept indoors, fed a nutritious diet, get routine dental and medical care, and supplemented with vitamins. Love is also a big factor.

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This is a lovely biography of my grandfather. It brings out the extraordinary energy, charm and resilience of the man. As John Fineran observes, many artists are not very good at selling their works but Frank Beresford was a born salesman. All sorts of people appear to have liked him from a Japanese artist to a group of Dutch airmen. Through his enterprise he gained many unusual experiences which included going to the Japanese emperor's annual tea party in Tokyo and tracking down the South African, General Smuts.

The book is self-made but a delight. Having an artistic background himself, John Fineran writes perceptively about Frank Beresford's art. The text is illustrated with appropriate paintings. Fineran reveals a life that surely could not be led in modern times. In that way, it is a little bit of social history. Frank Beresford lived through two world wars and the depression, yet managed to have wonderful experiences, travel the world and get a low golf handicap. I am biased, I suppose, but it is a charming read.


After years in a Mexican prison - and in legal limbo - Bruce Beresford-Redman's trial finally may be nearing an end.

He says the trial so far hasn't made any sense. Lost or contaminated evidence, missing witnesses and agonizing delays. It's his first court date in about three months.

On this day, in September 2014, he's set to face the prosecutor's final two witnesses -- hotel employees who may have witnessed Bruce and Monica arguing the day before her murder.

"How many times have you appeared before this judge?" Roberts asked.

"If I had to guess, I would say probably, 40, maybe 45 appearances in court over two-and- a-half years. At the many of those appearances, however-- the witness doesn't show up, and we stand around for a little while and they reschedule the witness for another eight weeks or 10 weeks down the road and we all go home again," Beresford-Redman replied.

But these witnesses actually do show up. Today, it's the judge who doesn't.

Like many of the other hearings, this one goes ahead anyway with the judge's assistant presiding.

Incredibly, the final two prosecution witnesses sound like part of the defense team. Both tell the court they've never laid eyes on Beresford-Redman or his wife.

"We didn't hear them arguing," one of them told "48 Hours" after the hearing. "We didn't even see their faces."

With no more witnesses on either side, Mexican law requires the judge to conclude the evidence phase of the trial within about five days but that doesn't happen.

"Why don't we have a verdict?" Roberts asked Pat Fanning.

"Because we're in Mexico," he replied. "That's how things are done here and nobody gets excited about it."

For nearly three years, "48 Hours" has asked Mexican authorities to go on the record about this case. But they refused.

Back in prison, it's hard for Beresford-Redman not to hope.

"I am absolutely confident that if -- if there is a ruling according to the facts, that I will be exonerated," he said.

"And when will that happen?" Roberts asked.

"Well . that I don't know. That's my problem," he replied.

But the Burgos sisters insist Bruce is right where he should be. And justice for Monica demands that he stay there.

"If he really killed my sister, which it looks like he did, I want him in jail. But it doesn't make me happy to see him in jail," said Carla Burgos.

"It's really time for me to go home. It's time for me to be with Camilla and Alec. It's time for me to try and put back together some kind of a life for them and for myself."

His parents, meanwhile, are trying to keep life in California as normal as possible for Alec and Camilla, but it's not easy -- they're 82 and 76.

Juanita Beresford-Redman has been keeping a video diary, too:

"It's . about 8:30 in the morning. The children have gone off to school. It's reasonably quiet at the moment.

"Camilla's birthday is coming up . and she asked me yesterday did I think daddy might be able to home for her birthday this year. and I told her honestly, "No honey. he's not gonna make it this year."

"Is it your fear that this may go on indefinitely?" Roberts asked Juanita.

"It is a fear," she replied. "I can't see why it's gone on this long."

Carla and Jeanne Burgos tried and failed to get custody, but they have regular visitation with the children.

"We love those kids more than anything in this world," Jeanne said. "It's not what is good, what is bad, it's what is the best for the kids."

"We are a family, but we're not their father. we're their grandparents," Juanita said. "We love them, but, it's not the same."

"I will never make my peace with being incarcerated for something I didn't do. I will never rest or stop fighting. I may lose continually, but I'm never gonna stop . because this is crap," Beresford-Redman told Roberts.

But as memories and milestones slip past, all Bruce Beresford-Redman can do is watch, wait, and wish his children well.

Video diary: ". I love you guys, I miss you. Be strong and . and all I want is for you guys to have the best life you can."

List Of Famous Freemasons

Abbott, William ‘Bud’ (1897-1974) – Bud Abbott was one half of the famous Abbott and Costello comedy duo. He was a comedian, actor and producer. Teaming up with comedian Lou Costello in 1936, Abbott was the ‘straight man’ and, between 1940 and 1956, they made 36 films together and, since they took a share of the profits from each movie, the pair became two of the highest paid stars in the world. When her husband left her, Abbott took over the running of his sister’s household, and he also adopted two children with his wife, Betty Smith. Bro. Abbott was a member of Daylight Lodge No. 525, Michigan.

Bud Abbot Bud Abbot
Seen here in the film ‘The Naughty Nineties’, the ‘Bud’ Abbott and Lou Costello duo entertained millions during the 40’s and 50’s.

Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iri, Sufi (1808-1883) – A Sufi (Islamic mystic), scholar and political leader, Abd al-Qadir or Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iri, was an Algerian who led a struggle against the French invasion in the mid-nineteenth century, for which he is seen by some Algerians as their national hero. In 1864 he was a Freemason in Lodge Henri IV in Paris, but his degree work was conducted at the Lodge of the Pyramids, Alexandria, Egypt.

Abrahams, Harold Maurice (1899-1978) – Harold Abrahams was an English-Jewish athlete who, in 1924, became ‘the fastest man alive’ when he won the 100 metres at the Olympic Games in Paris. His feat was depicted in the outstanding film ‘Chariots of Fire’, memorable not just for its hunting theme music but also as the winner of the Oscar® for Best Picture in 1981. Abrahams’ great friend, and the man who won the Bronze Medal in the 1924 race, Arthur Porritt, later became the Governor-General of New Zealand.

Aguinaldo, Emilio (1869-1964) – As President of the Philippine Islands, Aguinaldo declared their independence in 1898. Aguinaldo was a member of Pilar Lodge No.203 (now Pilar Lodge No.15) at Imus Cavite he was also a founder of Magdalo Lodge No.31 (renamed Emilio Aguinaldo Lodge No.31 in his honour).

Aldrin, Edwin Eugene ‘Buzz’ (1930 – ) – Buzz Aldrin is a mechanical engineer, an ex- USAF fighter pilot and an astronaut. On 20 July 1969, as the pilot of Apollo 11’s Lunar Module, he famously became only the second human to walk on the moon. At the time of his lunar landing, Aldrin was a member of Clear Lake Lodge No. 1417, Seagate, Texas and, in the wake of Aldrin’s space mission, the Grand Lodge of Texas formed Tranquillity Lodge No. 2000, named after Tranquillity Base, the location of Apollo 11’s landing site.
Aldrin is now a member of Montclair Lodge No.144, New Jersey.

Pilot of the Apollo 11 mission, Buzz Aldin was the second man to step onto the lunar surface.

Allcock, Anthony (1955- ) – “For a seemingly simple game, bowls is a highly complex sport and Tony Allcock is one of its greatest and most complex champions.” So said ‘The Daily Telegraph’ newspaper of one of the sport’s most successful players Leicestershire-born, Tony Allcock, who won 14 world titles during his career and was appointed England’s Bowl’s Coach for the 2002 Commonwealth Games.
Successful in virtually all he attempts, Tony Allcock is a champion horseman and, in 2002, even won a medal at Crufts – for his dog of course! He is currently CEO of Bowls England.

Amery, Leopold Charles Moritz Stennett (1873-1955) – Leo Amery was born in India of an English father and Hungarian-Jewish mother. He was a British Conservative Party politician and journalist, noted for his interest in military preparedness, India and the British Empire. As a contemporary of Winston Churchill (see below), Amery studied at Harrow. Later in his career in parliament, he was one of the forces that finally and vitally dislodged Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain from office in May 1940.

Apple, Rabbi Raymond (1935 – ) – As Chief Rabbi in the Great Synagogue in Sydney (1972-2005), Raymond Apple became the leading spokesman for Judaism in Australia. Apple is the Past Deputy Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales and a frequent writer on subjects Masonic, including ‘Studies, Speeches and Sensibilities’ 2010 – ISBN 9780980758405

Rabbi Raymond Apple is a well known Freemason and author of several Masonic publications.

Appleton, Sir Edward Victor (1892-1965) – Appleton was an English Physicist, who won the Nobel Prize in 1947 for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere. He was a member of Isaac Newton Lodge No.859, Cambridge, England.

Arne, Thomas Augustine (1710-1778) – Arne was the leading British theatre composer of the 18th Century working at Drury Lane and Covent Garden. He is probably best known for the patriotic song ‘Rule, Britannia!’ (1740) but he also wrote a version of ‘God Save the King’ (1775), that was to become the British national anthem and the second national anthem of New Zealand. In 1777, Arne also penned the song ‘A-Hunting We Will Go’. Arne was a Freemason and active in the organisation, which has long been centred around the Covent Garden area of London, of which he was a native.

Thomas Augustine Arne was the composer responsible for the song, ‘Rule, Britannia!’.

Arnold, Benedict (1741-1801) – Arnold was an American Revolutionary War General and a member of Hiram Lodge No. 1, New Haven, Connecticut.

Arnold, General Henry ‘Hap’ (1886-1950) – This ‘Medal of Honour’ recipient and American General helped to establish what is now the United States Air Force. Hap Arnold was the commander of the U.S. Army Air Force in World War II.

General Henry ‘Hap’ Arnold commanded the USAAF during World War 2.

Arouet, François-Marie ‘Voltaire’ (1694-1778) – Arouet was a French Enlightenment essayist and philosopher, better known by his pen name Voltaire. Famous for his wit, he was an outspoken supporter of social reform, despite strict censorship laws and harsh penalties at the time for those who broke them. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma and the French institutions of his day. He was initiated in 1778, by the then Worshipful Master, Ben Franklin, (see below) at Loge des Neuf Sœurs in Paris, but sadly was a Mason for less than two months prior to his death.

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (1850-1942) – Born in Buckingham Palace on 1st May 1850, Prince Arthur was the 3rd son of Queen Victoria. He joined the British army aged 16 and served with distinction in various parts of the Empire for 40 years, during which time he was made Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. He also served as Governor General of Canada in the early part of World War I.

When Prince Edward (see below) was crowned king in 1901, Prince Arthur was elected Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England (See UGLE in the appendix below.) and, in 1939, became the longest serving GM in history. Arthur was responsible for commissioning the building of Freemasons’ Hall, on the original site of Grand Lodge in London, as a memorial to the thousands of Freemasons who died in The Great War.

Ashmole, Elias (1617-1698) – Antiquary, astrologist, alchemist and politician, Elias Ashmole became a Freemason in 1647, being initiated into Warrington Lodge, Warrington, Cheshire, England. Ashmole is the earliest Freemason thus recorded in England. He was a founder of ‘The Royal Society of London’ with Sir Robert Moray and King Charles II (see below), and founded the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

A Fellow of the Royal Society, Elias Ashmole was the first ‘recorded’ Freemason in England. He was initiated into Warrington Lodge, Lancashire, England in 1647.

Astor, Johann Jacob ‘John’ (1763-1848) – From lowly beginnings, being a poor German immigrant to the U.S., at one point John Astor was considered to be the wealthiest man in America. Astor became Master of Holland Lodge No.8 in New York, NY in 1790 and served as Grand Treasurer for their Grand Lodge.

Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal (1881-1938) – An army officer, revolutionary, statesman and writer, Kemal Atatürk is the national hero and founder of the modern Republic of Turkey. He was also the first Turkish president. Kemal fought at Gallipoli against the Australian and New Zealand (ANZAC) Forces. He revolutionised and transformed the former Ottoman Empire into a modern and secular nation-state. He was a member of Macedonia Risorta Lodge No.80 in Thessaloniki.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey.

Austin, Stephen Fuller (1793-1836) – A colonizer and political leader, Austin first worked to make Texas a state of Mexico, but later helped the American and European settlers of Texas gain their independence (1836). He is acclaimed as “The Father of Texas” and the city of Austin, Texas is named after him. Austin was a keen and dedicated Freemason, a member of Louisiana Lodge No.109 in Ste. Geneviere, Missouri, and worked hard to establish Freemasonry in Texas from 1825 onward, but the delicate political climate of the time badly hindered his progress. (The Mexican General López de Santa Anna was also Mexico’s dictator and, then as now, dictators feel threatened by Freemasons.)

Stephen Austin, “the father of Texas”.

Autry, Orvon Eugene ‘Gene’ (1907-1998) – An American actor who made some 90 films from the 1930’s through to the 1950’s, Gene Autry was a cowboy singer (‘Back in the Saddle Again’ and more similar songs). His new found wealth was such that it enabled Autry to own the California Angels baseball team. Many young people have grown up listening to his rendition of ‘Rudolph, The Red-Nosed Reindeer’.
Gene Autry was a member of Catoosa Lodge No.185, Oklahoma and, according to his Masonically inscribed gravestone, Brother Autry was “a true gentleman”.

Frank Beresford - History

The National Endowment for the Humanities awarded the South Dakota State Historical Society-State Archives a $294,665 grant in 2014 to digitize historical newspapers. The project is part of a Library of Congress initiative to develop an online database of select newspapers.

The South Dakota State Archives is partnering with the Minnesota State Historical Society on this project.
The project will allow for the digitization of close to 100 rolls of newspapers pre-dating 1922.
The digitized versions of the newspapers will appear on the Library of Congress website, Chronicling America.

Now Available on Chronicling America

The Star (Aberdeen, SD) - 1894
The State Democrat (Aberdeen, SD) - 1898-1900
The Aberdeen Democrat (Aberdeen, SD) - 1902-1909

Big Stone City

The Grant County Herald (Big Stone City, SD) - 1879-1883
The Herald (Big Stone City, SD) - 1883-1890

Die Eureka Post (Eureka, SD) - 1904-1912
Eureka Post (Eureka, SD) - 1906-1907

Forest City

Hot Springs

The Hot Springs Star (Hot Springs, SD) - 1887-1892
Hot Springs Weekly Star (Hot Springs, SD) - 1892-1917

North Lemmon

Sioux Falls

Timber Lake

Warner Weekly Sun (Warner, SD) - 1883-1885
Warner Sun (Warner, SD) - 1885-1888

Life's a Beach!

South Florida’s archaeological record dates back to the Pleistocene, approximately 13,000 years ago. Archaeologists use the terms Paleo-Indian, South Florida Archaic, and Glades Period to distinguish chronological eras in our pre-Columbian history. The first known settlers in the Boca Raton area are identified as people of the Glades period. Most of the archaeological evidence for these inhabitants in Boca Raton show they lived primarily by the ocean.

Glades Period
BC 500-AD 1763
During the Glades Period interior of South Florida was becoming wetter and wetter and the people of South Florida had to adapt to the new climate conditions by taking up residence in places that were dry, very often in coastal and hammock environments. They continued to practice hunting and gathering as a subsistence strategy with a strong reliance on marine and estuarine resources. During the Glades Period, populations began to increase and there were large permanent settlements along the coast. Pre-historic Boca Raton was settled by Native Americans around 500 BC. The evidence for this early occupation is found at Gumbo Limbo archaeological site. Around 750 AD the population of the Boca Raton coastline increased continuing throughout the Glades Period, which ended in 1763 AD, when the last of the indigenous people of South Florida were removed by the Spanish.

Pre-Columbian Boca Raton
Coastal Boca Raton is home to two pre-Columbian archaeological complexes, the Spanish River Complex (AD 1200-1763) and the Boca Raton Inlet Complex (Glades II 750-1200 AD and Glades III 1200-1763 AD.) By definition, an archaeological complex includes a burial mound or cemetery and a habitation area, usually a midden. A midden is an area where people have disposed of food and other remains like pottery, shell, stone, and bone tools.

Boca Raton Inlet Complex
The Boca Raton Inlet Complex consists of 3 black earth middens and a sand burial mound. This site includes evidence of the first visitors to Boca who established small camp sites along the barrier island as early as 500 BC. Much of the Boca Raton Inlet Complex has been destroyed by the modern development of the area.

Spanish River Complex
The Spanish River Complex is one of the largest archaeological sites in Florida. It includes 4 middens as well as the Highland Beach and Barnhill burial mounds. The latter was used as the main feature in Boca’s old “Ancient America” attraction. Faunal remains of the Great Auk in the Boca Raton Inlet Complex suggest that Boca Raton was cooler in the past than it is today.

Who Were They?
Boca Raton is a transitional area between the Tequesta Indians to the South and the Jeaga to the north so it is unclear which cultural affiliation should be assigned to the locality. The ancient people of Boca Raton were a non-agricultural, tribal people who exploited marine, estuarine, and terrestrial resources. Since stone for making tools was not available locally, they relied largely on the use of shell to make weapons, tools, and beads. In addition, shark’s teeth were drilled and mounted on wood to make cutting tools and drills. Stone tools in local assemblages provide evidence of far reaching trade networks. Today, all of the indigenous tribes of Florida are extinct. They were wiped out by violence and disease imported by the Spanish. The last survivors were removed by the Spanish when they withdrew from Florida in 1763.

Interpretive drawing showing a busycon shell axe and replica axe:

St. John’s Checked Stamped pottery found on the beach at Boca Raton. The hole is a repair to tie broken pieces together:

Map of pre-Columbian Boca Raton, courtesy Dorothy Block, Archaeologist, and Founding Chair, Palm Beach County Archaeological Society and Richard Randall.

The modern town of Boca Raton was established in the mid-1890s with the coming of the Florida East Coast Railway. Boca was a small farming community specializing in pineapples and tomatoes and winter vegetables in those days. The center of town was near the railroad tracks, well inland. The beach was not yet a desirable place to live—too many bugs and storms!

This is the earliest known photograph taken of Boca Raton’s wide open beach by pioneer settler Thomas Rickards, possibly in the 1890s. Note the wood and other flotsam on the beach, a common site in the early days. Salvaged wood and other products helped build many a South Florida residence in the pioneer era.

Boca Raton’s pioneers loved a day at the beach as much as any modern resident. Note the stylish bathing attire of the era. Left to right: Joseph Myrick, Peg Young, Helen Long, and Robert, Mamie and William Myrick, ca. 1915.

This view from the mid-1920s shows Boca Raton’s first beach house, located just south of Palmetto Park Road. The view is looking north and the small Palmetto Park Pavilion is just visible in the distance. Dr. Stanley Robbins, an early snowbird, built this large three story home in 1922. It featured open terraces on the north and south and six bedrooms. We know very little about Dr. Robbins other than he came to Boca Raton as early as the 1910s. Supposedly a cave (Butts Cave?) in the rocks led into the house, providing an inviting stash site for the local rum runners during the Prohibition era. It was sold several times but maintained by local residents serving as caretakers, including two of Boca Raton’s pioneer Jewish families, the Browns and Hutkins. In the 1940s it was a boarding house known as the Beach House Inn operated by Gladys Dixon. Later it became Hermansen’s Restaurant, demolished to make way for the Boca Mar Apartments in 1968.

This is a view looking west from the beach just south of Palmetto Park Road of the Stanley Robbins house, ca. mid 1920s.

Boca Raton’s two earliest pioneer Jewish families, Harry and Florence Brown and in-laws, Max and Nettie Hutkin, lived in the Robbins house as caretakers when they first arrived in Boca Raton in the 1930s. In this view Nettie Hutkin, right, poses with her friend Mrs. Louis Malpi, on the back steps of the house in 1937.

A man named Hermansen purchased the house in the 1950s and turned it into a popular beachfront restaurant, shown here in a color postcard from 1956. The structure was demolished in 1964 to make way for the Boca Mar Apartments.

Boca Raton’s principal “beach” has been located at the end of Palmetto Park Road ever since a bridge was built over the Intracoastal in 1917. That is also the site of a series of beach “pavilions” that have served as sun shade and meeting place for visitors and residents since the 1920s. The first such structure was a very modest and simple tent- like pavilion that served as a landmark of pride for the small community of roughly 200 people. By 1930, Hermann Von Holst, Chicago architect and developer of the Old Floresta neighborhood, designed a beautiful new structure for the site, seen in the large photographs here. It was known as “the lacy pavilion” by the locals. That too fell into decay and many horrific hurricanes pounding the coast. In the ensuing years, several less glamorous pavilions have taken its place, but the site remains “The Beach” to longtime residents. Today the Palmetto Park Pavilion is part of the city’s South Beach Park.

This postcard view shows the “lacy pavilion” at Palmetto Park Road and the beach in 1948. Note the salvaged anchor, recovered by the local scouts from the waters nearby. The anchor has long been removed and the pavilion replaced several times since this image was taken.

What is today South Beach Park can be seen in this 1948 image looking north to the “lacy pavilion.” Under the structure was a shower and restroom for beach patrons.

This modest structure was either the first or second pavilion at the beach - built at the end of Palmetto Park Road in the 1920s.

Boca Raton model (and Miss America runner-up) Dorothy Steiner strikes a pose just south of the pavilion in 1960.

The small town of Boca Raton was pulled into the onset of World War II in a dramatic way in 1942. The Boca Raton Army Air Field, the Army Air Force’s only war time radar training facility, was established in that year, initially headquartered at the Boca Raton Club (now Boca Raton Resort & Club) while the base was under construction. Meanwhile, sixteen merchant ships were attacked by German U-boats between Cape Canaveral and Fort Lauderdale in mid -1942. Locals recall the sounds of the explosions and flotsam and sometimes bodies from the wrecked ships would come ashore on Boca Raton’s beaches. The E.E. Barrett family owned one of few developed properties on Boca’s beachfront, tourist cottages known as Boca Raton Villas. The Villas were located just south of Palmetto Park Road where the Beresford Condominium stands today. The Barrett family recovered so much balata (raw rubber) that floated ashore from a merchant vessel they were able to resell it for wartime industries. They also found at least one still-unopened coffee can on the beach. This was a welcome find as coffee was being rationed at the time.

Citizens throughout coastal cities in America suffered through night time curfews and blackouts windows had to be covered so no light shown through in the evening. Car headlights were either turned off or painted black on top for the same reason. This was to minimize a target area for possible torpedo or air attacks. The same communities all had plane spotting stations manned by civilians of the Aircraft Warning Service or AWS. These were volunteers who manned towers or tall buildings near the beach. Boca Raton’s tower stood in the vicinity of today’s Red Reef Park. Locals of all ages and genders would climb the tower, armed with the knowledge of the silhouettes of both Allied and Axis aircraft. Their job was to record and report any such sightings via phone to the air raid marshal headquartered at Town Hall. The tower was demolished in 1946.

This gutta percha (rubber) model plane hung from the ceiling of the Boca Raton spotting tower to aid spotters in identifying aircraft.

This is an unusual 1940s view taken from the ocean off the beach at the Boca Raton Villas, where much flotsam floated ashore from merchant ships wrecked by the German wolf packs hunting just off shore in 1942. Today this is the site of the Beresford and Excelsior Condominiums.

This color postcard shows the tourist cottages of Boca Raton Villas in the 1950s. It was located south of Palmetto Park Road, where the Beresford Condominium stands today.

The coming of the Boca Raton Army Air Field, BRAAF, brought thousands of service men and women and civilian employees to the little town of Boca Raton (population a little over 700) during the years 1942-1947. Soldiers would fill the once lonely beaches every weekend. In this photo, BRAAF soldiers pose at the Palmetto Park Pavilion during the war.

Despite 800 buildings built at BRAAF, there was little provision for the wives and families of officers, particularly those stationed at BRAAF permanently. Locals built partitions within their private homes and created temporary boarding houses. Most of the area hostelries at the time were quite naturally, on the beach. The “Where to Live” map from ca. 1942 shows the offerings open to BRAAF families during the war. People commuted from as far away as Fort Lauderdale to Boca Raton - not unlike today.

Even a tiny town like Boca Raton observed the restrictions placed on its citizens during the days of Segregation. Despite its beachfront, resort - like setting, it was still a small Southern town. Boca Raton’s African American pioneers, very few in number, recall that the “black beach” was located north of the Palmetto Park Pavilion - where they were not welcome. hey also reported there were never any conflicts over integration of the beach as famously happened in places like Fort Lauderdale in 1961.

The black pioneers recalled big community picnics on the beach in the 1930s, 40s, and 50s. Jimmy Goddard would bring his juke box to the beach on a truck along with a generator for electricity to provide music for the festivities. A fish fry was accompanied by sandwiches and ice cream and lots of punch (or age appropriate refreshment). Swimming, of course, was the major activity supplemented with dancing courtesy the juke box and ending with a friendly baseball game. The 4th of July was always celebrated in this manner as was May 20th - known as Emancipation Day in Florida. This commemorates the day the Emancipation Proclamation was read on the steps of the capitol in Tallahassee - May 20th, 1865.

Mizner’s Cloister Inn reopened as the Boca Raton Club in January of 1930. Owner Clarence Geist realized the need for beachfront access for the patrons of his exclusive new hostelry, so he had a cabana club built on the beach south of Boca Raton inlet. The Cabana Sun Club underwent many alterations and improvements over the years. In addition to beach access for hotel guests, it became the most public venue of the otherwise private resort. Youngsters could take swimming lessons there and thanks to the Schine family in the 1940s and 50s, locals could actually rent a cabana in the off season. Many a dance, barbecue, and public and private celebration were held at the Cabana Club. The years and many a hurricane took its toll the club was demolished in ca. 1981 after the construction of the nearby Boca Beach Club. Today it is the site of the Addison condominium complex. The old porte cochere from the club was salvaged at the request of the Boca Raton Historical Society and relocated to South Inlet Park, where it serves as a picnic pavilion today.

This aerial postcard view of the Cabana Club shows the barely developed Estates section looking north in 1956.

Watch the video: Άννα Φρανκ