History of S-47 SS-158 - History

History of S-47 SS-158 - History

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(SS-158: dp. 800 (surf.), 1,126 (subm.), 1. 219'3" b. 20'6"; dr. 15'1" (mean) s. 14.5 k. (surf.), 11 k. (subm.); cpl. 42; a. 1 4", i 21" tt.; el. S-42)

S-47 (SS-158) was laid down on 26 February 1921 by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Quiney, Mass.; launched on 5 January 1924; sponsored by Mrs. Morris D. Gilmore, and commissioned on 16 September 1925, Lt. John Wilkes in command

Following commissioning and fitting out, S-47 conducted engineering and torpedo tests off the southern New England coast. However, with the new year, 1926, she departed New England and moved south to join Submarine Division (SubDiv) 19 in the Panama Canal Zone.

She arrived at Coco Solo on 19 January and, for the next year and one-half, conducted local operations in the Pacific and Caribbean. During this period, her routine was broken by joint Army-Navy exercises testing the defenses of the canal; by Fleet Problem VI (February 1926) and VII (March 1927); and by extended training cruises in the Caribbean (June 1926 and April 1927). Transferred to San Diego with her division in June 1927, she continued to participate in individual, division, fleet, and joint Army-Navy exercises into 1932. At that time, a period of inactivity in rotating reserve status was added to S-boat employment schedules.

In 1936, S-47, now in SubDiv 11, was transferred back to Coco Solo, where she was based through the end of the decade. In the summer of 1941, she returned to New London and commenced operations off the southern New England coast. During September, she patrolled in the Bermuda area; and, in October, she returned to New London. The following month, she moved north to Argentia to participate in exercises to test S-boat capabilities in arctic and sub arctic waters. By mid-December, she was back at New London, and, by January 1942, she was back in the Panama Canal Zone.

Defensive operations in the approaches to the canal took S-47 into March. On the 5th, she moved west with SubDiv 53 to join TF 42 at Brisbane. She arrived in mid-April, and, on the 22d, she got underway to conduct her first offensive war patrol in the New Britain - New Ireland area.

On the 27th, she commenced submerged operations during daylight hours. On the morning of the 29th, she passed Bougainville, and, on the night of 30 April, she arrived off New Britain. The next evening, she attempted to close an enemy submarine but lost contact with the target. That night, she transited St. George Channel, and, on the morning of 2 May, she closed Blanche Bay. Despite numerous enemy patrol craft both surface and air, off the Crater Peninsula, she moved toward Simpson Harbor in an attempt to score on an oiler accompanied by a destroyer. Her quarry however, reached safety before S-47 could close the range.

S-47 waited outside the harbor. Four hours later two destroyers entered the harbor, and, a short while after that, a cruiser was sighted on the same course. S-47 increased her speed and maneuvered to attack. But, before she was ready, a short in the electrical firing circuit fired No. 4 tube. The cruiser continued into the harbor. The electrical firing circuit in S-47 was disconnected.

Still in the area on the 3d, S-47 became the target of a three-hour submarine hunt conducted by two destroyers and two minesweepers and punctuated by frequent depth charge attacks. That night, she cleared the area. By 5 May, she was off New Hanover; and, on the 8th, she fired on a cargoman which reversed course and headed for the submarine at high speed. S-47 went deep and readied two tubes for firing. The target however, passed overhead; resumed its original course; and soon outdistanced the submarine.

S-47 remained on patrol in that area for another four days. On the 12th, she shifted to the Buka area and patrolled off Queen Carola Harbor until 15 May. She then turned for Brisbane.

In port for repairs from 20 May until early June, S-47 cleared Moreton Bay on 6 June to return to New Britain. Again, she hunted off the Crater Peninsula and between there and the Duke of York Islands- then moved into the Shortland Island area before heading for Australia on the 22d.

She departed the Australian coast again on 28 July but fuel tank leaks forced her to turn back on 1 August. From the 5th to the 24th, she was back in Brisbane. On the 25th, she was again underway for St. George Channel and the area to the northwest of Rabaul. On 2 September, her patrol was shifted to include the eastern and southeastern coasts of New Ireland, where, on the 12th, she damaged an enemy warship. On 22 September, she returned to Brisbane.

Twenty-eight days later, S-47 departed Moreton Bay for her last war patrol as a unit of TF 42. Moving across the Coral Sea and into the Solomons, she sighted Shortland Island on the 28th, and, on the night of 30-31 October, commenced hunting on the Buin-Rabaul line. On 2 November, east of Bougainville, she damaged a second Japanese warship. Two days later, she began moving southeast. On the 8th, she passed San Cristobal Island and departed the Solomons, en route to the Fiji Islands and the Panama Canal.

On 17 November, S-47 joined other units of SubDiv 53 and Griffin in Suva Harbor, whence the group proceeded to Coco Solo. There, during the first quarter of 1943, S-47 underwent overhaul and received a surface search radar. In March, she was ordered to Trinidad, B.W.I., to furnish training services for antisubmarine vessels stationed there. But she was soon recalled to the Canal Zone, then ordered to San Francisco for further yard work at the Bethlehem Steel Co. Arriving early in May, she remained in the shipyard through the summer; and, after training off the southern California coast in September, she headed north to the Aleutians.

In October, S-47 arrived at Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, whence she conducted two war patrols to impede Japanese traffic in the Paramushiro area. On 3 January 1944, she completed the second of her two North Pacific patrols, and, a month later, she departed the Aleutians to return to the southwestern Pacific.

Arriving at Milne Bay on 17 March,S-47 joined TF 72; and, for the next two months, conducted ASW training operations for 7th Fleet minesweepers. In June, however, she shifted to Seeadler Harbor in the Admiralties, whence she departed on another war patrol on 17 June. The patrol, conducted to support the Allied thrust along the New Guinea coast, was completed on 5 July. Availability at Brisbane followed and, at the end of August, she returned to Seeadler Harbor to resume ASW training operations. In November, she shifted to Mios Woendi, and, in February 1945, she headed for Brisbane, whence, on 8 March, she sailed for the United States.

S-47 arrived at San Diego in mid-April and remained there until after the cessation of hostilities in the Pacific. In mid-September, she moved up to San Francisco; and, on 25 October 1945, she was decommissioned. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 13

November 1945, and she was sold for scrapping in May 1946.

S-47 earned three battle stars during World War II.

S-47 (SS-158)

S-47 prewar

Decommissioned 25 October 1945.
Stricken 13 November 1945.
Sold in May 1946 to be broken up for scrap.

Commands listed for USS S-47 (158)

Please note that we're still working on this section.

1James William Blanchard, USN5 Oct 1936May 1940
2James White Davis, USNMay 194030 Sep 1942
3Lt. Frank Edward Hayler, USN30 Sep 1942Feb 1944
4Lloyd V. Young, USNRFeb 1944Dec 1944
5Allen R. Bergner, USNDec 194425 Oct 1945

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Notable events involving S-47 include:

5 Mar 1942
USS S-47 (Lt. J.W. Davis) departed from Coco Solo, Panama Canal Zone for Brisbane, Australia.

15 Apr 1942
USS S-47 (Lt. J.W. Davis) arrived at Brisbane.

22 Apr 1942
USS S-47 (Lt. J.W. Davis) departed from Brisbane for her 1st war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the New Britain-New Ireland area.

20 May 1942
USS S-47 (Lt. J.W. Davis) ended her 1st war patrol at Brisbane.

6 Jun 1942
USS S-47 (Lt. J.W. Davis) departed from Brisbane for her 2nd war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the New Britain-New Ireland area.

30 Jun 1942
USS S-47 (Lt. J.W. Davis) ended her 2nd war patrol at Brisbane.

28 Jul 1942
USS S-47 (Lt. J.W. Davis) departed from Brisbane for her 3rd war patrol.

1 Aug 1942
USS S-47 (Lt. J.W. Davis) returns to Brisbane with leaky fuel tanks. She breaks off her 3rd war patrol.

25 Aug 1942
USS S-47 (Lt. J.W. Davis) departed from Brisbane again for her 3rd war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the New Britain-New Ireland area.

22 Sep 1942
USS S-47 (Lt. J.W. Davis) ended her 3rd war patrol at Brisbane.

20 Oct 1942
USS S-47 (Lt. F.E. Haylor) departed from Brisbane for her 4th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the Solomons.

17 Nov 1942
USS S-47 (Lt. F.E. Haylor) ended her 4th war patrol at Suva, Fiji.

1 Dec 1942
USS S-47 (Lt. F.E. Haylor) departed from Suva to proceed to Coco Solo in the Panama Canal Zone.

6 Jan 1943
USS S-47 (Lt. F.E. Haylor) arrived at Coco Solo. After an overhaul at San Francisco S-47 was ordered to proceed to Alaska. There she made two more war patrols in late 1943.

13 Mar 1943
USS S-47 departed Coco Solo, Panama Canal Zone for Trinidad.

22 Mar 1943
USS S-47 arrived at Trinidad from Coco Solo, Panama Canal Zone.

27 Mar 1943
USS S-47 departed Trinidad for Coco Solo, Panama Canal Zone.

3 Apr 1943
USS S-47 arrived at Coco Solo, Panama Canal Zone from Trinidad.

5 Apr 1943
USS S-47 transited the Panama Canal and arrived at Balboa.

Media links

U. S. Submarines in World War II
Kimmett, Larry and Regis, Margaret

Sikorsky Product History

The Sikorsky S-47/VS-316A/R-4 model was the first production helicopter in the world and based on the successful VS-300A helicopter. It was designed with Sikorsky funds without Government assistance. On May 26, 1940 Igor Sikorsky visited the U.S. Army Air Corps, Material Division at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio. Motion pictures of the VS-300 were shown that demonstrated the controllability of the Sikorsky design. The Air Corps was impressed but explained that there were insufficient funds available to fund a Sikorsky helicopter (They had invested in the Platt LePage XR-1 which had controllability problems.). However if they received a proposal from Sikorsky that was within the limited funding available it would be considered. On August 14, 1940 Sikorsky submitted a proposal to build one VS-316 helicopter for $50,000. A contract was signed on January 10, 1941. The original XR-4 design included 3 tail rotors: 2 horizontally mounted and one vertically.

Engineering drawing of VS-316 with 3 tail rotors

As the VS-300 helicopter developed, the design evolved to the single anti-torque tail rotor design. This design change to the XR-4 added $10,000 to the $50,000 contract. The estimated cost for the XR-4 development was $200,000. The XR-4 helicopters featured a 36 foot 3 bladed fully articulated main rotor and a 3 bladed tail rotor powered by a Warner Scarab 175 hp R-500-1 seven cylinder air cooled radial engine. The XR-4 had a 2 place side-by-side cockpit with dual flight controls. As a weight saving measure, only one main rotor pitch control lever (collective) was installed in the center of the cockpit One Experimental XR-4 helicopters was built The first flight was on January 14, 1942.

The picture above was taken on December 29, 1941 of the team responsible for getting the XR-4 ready for the first flight. Left to Right:

  • 1st Row: Robert Kretvix George &ldquoRed&rdquo Lubben – Mechanic Miles &ldquoBud&rdquo Roosevelt – Mechanic Ed Walsh – Crew Chief
  • 2nd Row: Alex Krapish, Michael Buivid – Supervisor Vought-Sikorsky Test Lab Igor. I. Sikorsky Fritz Papini, Bob Labensky – XR-4 Project Engineer Walter Stens, Henry Wirkus
  • 3rd Row: Edward Ortlepp Adolph Plenefisch – Shop Foreman

XR-4 First Flight January 14, 1942

On April 20, 1942, a flight demonstration was scheduled to demonstrate that the XR-4 was ready for delivery. A requirement for this event was to demonstrate a power off autorotation. This had never been done in a Sikorsky helicopter and no procedures existed on how to accomplish an autorotation. Test pilot Les Morris was apprehensive when the engineers advised that they weren&rsquot sure the XR-4 would be controllable during power off flight. Les Morris developed a procedure to autorotate the XR-4 and proved that the helicopter was both safe and controllable in autorotation.

The link below is a film of Les Morris in the R-4 demonstrating helicopter controllability and an autorotative landing within a foot of a handkerchief target.

The April 20, 1943 flight demonstration audience included Lt. Col. H. Frank Gregory, Major Leslie Cooper, and Mr. Mandel Lenkowsky from USAAF Material Division, Wright Field, Dayton Ohio, and representatives from other interested parties including: Allen W. Morris, Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) F.J. Baily, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Commander W. J. Kossler, U.S. Coast Guard Wing Commander R.A.C Brie British Air Commission Commander J. H. Millar, Royal Navy Colonel George L. King and Colonel P.E Gabel, U. S. Army Armored Forces. The visitors were very impressed by the demonstration which included:

    • Vertical ascents and descents, hovering, sideways and backward flying.
    • The accurateness of control was demonstrated by &ldquospearing&rdquo a 10 inch ring with the pitot tube and lifting it off a pole and delivering it to Igor. Sikorsky&rsquos hand while hovering a few feet off the ground.
    • Raw eggs in a net bag were suspended from the pitot tube on the end of a 10 foot rope. The pilot took off, rose to an altitude of 50 feet, the descended slowly lowering the eggs to the ground. None of the eggs were cracked.
    • A telephone was lowered from the helicopter to the ground in a hover. A conversation was carried on between Lt. Col. Gregory and the occupants of the helicopter. During the conversation sketches were lowered to the ground in containers attached to the telephone wire and allowed to slide to the ground.
    • A passenger was taken on while the helicopter hovered by means of a rope ladder. The helicopter flew around the field returning to the same spot and the passenger returned to the ground by descending the rope ladder. Another passenger demonstrated the ease of leaving the helicopter by jumping out while the helicopter hovered a few feet above the ground.
    • Forward speeds of 78 mph were demonstrated without using full power (Speeds of 82 mph were attained during Sikorsky test flights). During the demonstration an altitude of 5,000 feet was attained with part of the descent done with power off to demonstrate an autorotation.
    • A lift demonstration was done with a mechanic standing on each wheel and pilot and a passenger in the cockpit. The helicopter ascended vertically several feet. The total useful load lifted was approximately 720 pounds, a 171 pound overload.

    The demonstration concluded with the VS-300 on floats flight to demonstrate the amphibious capability of the helicopter to land on land and the water with the floats installed.

    The guests were very impressed by the demonstration and afterword held a discussion of potential missions for a helicopter. They included:

    In the following years helicopters performed all of these missions plus many more.

    After an extremely successful demonstration, the XR-4 was deemed ready for delivery. A decision was made by the Army to fly the helicopter to Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio. Igor Sikorsky had recommended that the XR-4 be delivered by truck to eliminate the possibility of losing this one of a kind experimental helicopter, which only had flown 20 hours, on the delivery flight. At the Customer&rsquos direction, preparations were made for the 761 mile flight. A longer route, North to Lake Erie, West to Cleveland, and South to Dayton was chosen to take advantage of more level terrain with more suitable landing sites than a straight line route over the Allegheny Mountains.

    Up until that time the XR-4 had never been more than one mile from the factory. Test pilot Les Morris started making short cross country flight to determine how the engine and transmission handled longer flights. On May 13, 1942, Les Morris was ready and he departed Bridgeport.
    The trip took five days and covered 761 miles. The elapsed time was 16 hours and 10 minutes in a series of 16 separate flights. A &ldquoChase&rdquo vehicle (a sedan with 4 passengers: Bob Labensky, the project engineer Ralph Alex, his assistant, Adolph Plenefisch, shop foreman on the helicopter, and the driver Ed Beatty, transport chief plus tools and spare parts) with a large yellow circle painted on the roof accompanied the XR-4. Igor Sikorsky flew with Sikorsky Test Pilot Les Morris from Cleveland to Mansfield, Ohio and the final leg from Springfield to Dayton, Ohio. The XR-4 arrived in Dayton on May 17, 1942 and was accepted by the Government on May 30, 1942. During the trip two unofficial records were set: A distance record of 92 miles (Mansfield to Springfield) and an endurance record of one hour and 50 minutes.

    The story of the delivery flight, authored by Les Morris, is available on this site at the link below:
    HISTORY IN THE MAKING by Charles Lester Morris - First Delivery

    XR-4 arrives at Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio

    The XR-4 was the first helicopter delivered to the Army Air Forces. At that time they AAF had 1 qualified helicopter pilot, Lt. Col. Gregory.

    After completion of testing at Wright Field on January 5, 1943, the XR-4 was bailed back to Sikorsky Aircraft for modification and additional developmental tests. It was modified with a 38 foot diameter rotor and a 200 hp engine and was identified as a XR-4C. Sikorsky used the XR-4C to develop an automatic pitch reduction system to reduce the main rotor to minimum pitch in the event of engine failure, development of an engine governor, and installation of a torque meter. These tests and experiments provided information affecting the additional helicopters which were on order. It was concluded that the XR-4 had demonstrated the practicality of the helicopter. Experience gained with this model indicated the advisability of further helicopter procurement. The XR-4C is on display at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia.

    Smithsonian XR-4C U.S. Army Serial No.41-18874

    The successful testing of the Experimental XR-4 helicopter resulted in a USAAF order for 15 YR-4A developmental helicopters for service testing with a 38 foot diameter main rotor and a Warner R-550-1 185 hp engine. A follow-on order for 14 YR-4A helicopters was added in January 1943. A Production contract for 100 R-4B helicopters from the USAAF was received in 1943

    The Sikorsky S-47 model would never have been successful had it not been for visionaries who saw the future for helicopters. USAAF Colonel Frank Gregory was one of them. He flew the VS-300 and was convinced that the single main rotor helicopter was the design to develop. He is reported to have advised Dr. Sikorsky to perfect cyclic control and eliminate the 3 tail rotors on the VS-300. He also convinced his superior&rsquos to buy the XR-4 helicopter as a backup to the LePage XR-1 helicopter. The other visionary was USCG Captain Frank Erickson who pushed the development of the helicopter against resistance from the U.S. Navy. He proposed using the helicopter to guard convoys crossing the Atlantic. Then he pushed the helicopter as a submarine hunter with dipping SONAR. At the same time he was developing the helicopter to support the Coast Guard primary peace time mission of saving lives. The story of the Coast Guard and the R-4 is described in detail in the below link to an Archives Historical Essay.

    Igor Sikorsky and Colonel Frank Gregory

    Igor Sikorsky and Captain Frank Erickson

    Sikorsky R-4 Helicopter at Lodwick School of Aeronautics. A rare color film of a USCG HNS-1 from CGAS Brooklyn, N.Y. demonstrates a helicopter to the Cadets at the Lodwick School of Aeronautics in Lakeland, Florida. Lodwick School had an Army Contract to provide basic flight training to Army Air Corps cadets. A link to this video is provided below.

    S-47/R-4 Development Timeline

    XR-4 on the S.S. James Parker during shipboard demonstrations in July 1943

    First Mercy Mission Crew, USCG CDR Erickson and ENS Bolton, with their HNS-1 helicopter

      • April 26-27, 1944. First Military Combat Rescue. USAAF pilot Second Lieutenant Carter Harman flew a YH-4A helicopter 500 miles from a base in Lalaghat India to rescue three wounded British Commandos and a USAAF L-1 pilot. They were stranded behind enemy lines in near Aberdeen, Burma after being shot down by enemy gunfire. Lt. Harmon removed the copilot&rsquos seat and carried 21 gallons of fuel in 4 Jerri cans and a foldable stretcher for the long trip. Lt. Harman hopscotched from USAAF Air Commando base to base with extra stops enroute to refuel. The limited capabilities of the YR-4 required Carter to take one person at a time to a sand bar where they were flown to a hospital in an L-5 fixed wing airplane. After the second rescue, the engine overheated requiring an overnight stay on the sand bar. The next day, he rescued the third wounded British Commando and returned to pick up the pilot and return him to the USAAF Air Commando Forward Base at Aberdeen.

      USAAF Second Lieutenant Carter Harman (left side standing) and his YR-4B in Burma

      The link below is to a video with an introduction to the R-4 by George Scott and an interview with Lt. Harman.

      • January 15, 1947. HNS-1 from the USCGC Northwind is the first helicopter to land at the Little America IV base in Antarctica.

      USCG HNS-1 landing on CGC Northwind in Antarctica

      Configuration Features

      R-4 Helicopter Design
      By modern standards, the R-4 has a conventional appearance, but it was very unusual at a time when few helicopters had been built and those that did exist all had multiple rotors in coaxial, side-by-side, intermeshing, or tandem configurations. The multiple rotor designs had relatively small rotors, whereas the single main rotor of the R-4 was 38 feet in diameter and had three tapered blades. The vertical tail rotor was almost eight feet in diameter, and it also had three tapered blades. The R-4 main rotor and control system design included 39 inventions patented on the autogiro. Sikorsky Aircraft paid the Autogiro Company of America (Pitcairn-Cierva) a royalty for each R-4 built.

      Power was supplied by a 200 hp (Take Off 5 minute rating) Warner Super Scarab R550-3 air-cooled seven cylinder radial engine. This was mounted with the propeller shaft horizontal, but the engine faced &ldquobackwards,&rdquo with the propeller shaft pointing aft. This drove a short driveshaft connected to the main gearbox. The output shafts from this gearbox provided power to the main rotor, and also to an aft driveshaft that powered the tail rotor.

      Cooling Fan and Flywheel

      The engine cooling fan and flywheel provided cool air for the engine and contained a manually operated clutch to connect the engine to the main gearbox. The clutch was engaged by a 3 position lever located between the seats in the cockpit that engaged and released both the clutch and rotor brake.. A free-wheeling unit was attached to the output side of the fan which disconnected the engine from the main gear box in the event of engine failure to allow autorotation.

      XR-4C R-550-3 Engine Installation

      Landing Gear
      The landing gear was of the &ldquoconventional&rdquo tail wheel type, with skids provided on the front to prevent nose-overs during landing. The skids were normally removed as a weight saving on all helicopter not used in pilot training missions. Provisions were provided to move the tail wheel 3 bays aft when the helicopter was used for training. The two-place cockpit was in the nose, immediately ahead of the engine, and arranged so the pilot and trainee sat side-by-side, with entrance doors provided for each. The pilot sat in the right hand seat, opposite of the airplane standard, where the pilot was on the left side. During training the student flew in the right seat and the instructor pilot in the left seat to allow the student to have the cyclic stick in his right hand. Pictures in the Archives files indicate that the R-4 and HNS-1 helicopters were flown from either seat depending on the mission.

      The cockpit was extensively glazed with Plexiglas windows, and doors were provided on each side. In addition to the windshield, roll down windows were placed in the doors, windows in the cockpit overhead, and the nose below the instrument panel. Cockpit floors were Haskelite (Birch plies impregnated with phenolic resin and molded under pressure and heat (280 degrees) to form a lightweight structural material).

      On the R-4, the fuselage structure was made in two pieces, bolted together just aft of the engine bay. The aft structure was almost entirely round steel tubing, but the forward part also included square-section steel tubing and wooden stringers. The aft framework was covered with doped fabric to reduce drag. Zippers were sewn into the fabric at various locations to allow access to components for inspection and maintenance. The forward structure, containing the engine compartment and cockpit was covered with removable panels made from thin sheets of dural (hardened aluminum alloy) or magnesium alloy. The fuselage framework was constructed almost entirely of 4130 chrome-molybdenum steel thin wall tubing.

      Rotor Hubs
      Because weight is critical on all aircraft and especially on helicopters, lightweight aluminum and magnesium alloys were applied wherever possible. The main rotor hub was made of steel, but the swashplate control assembly was made of magnesium alloy hubs with aluminum alloy plates riveted on.

      S-47 (R-4B) Main Rotor Head Isometric Drawing

      Flight Control
      The S-47 (R-4B) flight control system consisted of dual azimuth (360 degree) control (Cyclic) sticks, which controlled the direction of flight and a single Main Pitch Control Stick (Collective), which controlled vertical movement was mounted between the 2 cockpit seats. A twist grip on the end of the Main Pitch Control Stick controlled engine rpm and was synchronized to increase rpm when main rotor pitch was increased and decrease rpm when pitch was decreased. Two rudder pedals controlled the pitch of the anti-torque tail rotor which controlled the direction of the fuselage
      Lateral (Roll) Control. Lateral control was obtained by side movement of the cyclic stick. Side movement of the stick raised or lowered the azimuthal control horn on the azimuthal control spider (stationary star) which in turn tilted the blade incidence control spider (rotating star).
      Longitudinal Control. Logitudinal control was obtained by fore and aft movement of the cyclic stick. Fore and aft movement of the stick raised or lowered the second azimuth control horn which tilted the rotating star. A combination of lateral and longitudinal movement of the cyclic stick would allow the helicopter to fly in any direction.
      Vertical Control. Vertical (Up and Down) control was obtained by up and down movement of the Main Pitch Control Stick which increased or decreased the pitch of all 3 main rotor blades by means of a push pull rod enclosed in the main rotor shaft. The blade pitch was increased or decreased simultaneously by a sliding section of the crown on the main rotor hub.

      Main Gearbox
      The main gearbox housing was a cast magnesium alloy in three parts. All gears and shafts were alloy steel. The driveshaft from the engine drove a 17-tooth helix pinion gear which meshed with and drove a helix gear of 52-teeth. The 52 tooth gear was mounted on a common shaft with an 18 tooth spiral bevel pinion gear and the two gears were bolted together. The 18 tooth pinion gear meshed with and drove a 55 tooth spiral bevel ring gear which was attached to the lower end of the main rotor drive shaft. The total reduction in this transmission, between the engine and the main rotor was 1 to 0.107 (2,000 engine rpm = 215 main rotor rpm). The main gearbox also provided power to the tail rotor through the tail drive shaft.

      R-4 Main Gearbox, Engine Fan/flywheel, and Free-Wheeling Unit

      Main Rotor Blades
      The main rotor blade had a step tapered, tubular chrome-molybdenum steel spar extending from root to tip. Welded to the spar were stainless steel collars to which spruce plywood ribs were bolted. The leading edge consisted of lamination of spruce, balsa, and mahogany and the trailing edge formed by a flexible cable held to the ribs with brass clips. Balsa wood was used for the fairing at both tip and root of the blade. The blade was covered by fabric doped to the wood surfaces and sewn to the ribs. The leading edge of the outer 1/3 of the blade including the tip was covered by a brass leading edge cover (abrasion strip) attached by countersink brass screw which were soldered over and trimmed to contour. A NACA 0012 airfoil was used.
      To correct vibration problems in early production helicopters, which were holding up deliveries, a production helicopter was tied down and load cells installed on the pitch links. The load cells recorded the forces in each of the 3 pushrods which varied by rpm and pitch. Bending the brass clips, which attached the trailing edge cable to the ribs, acted the same as trim tab adjustments on modern main rotor blades to lower vibrations to an acceptable level for Government acceptance. Blades were adjusted in sets of 3. Interchangeability of individual blades would not be available until all-metal blades were produced in the 1950s.

      Pitch Gage
      The R-4 helicopter was equipped with a pitch gage to indicate the blade angle for the main rotor. The gage was mounted on top of the instrument panel just right of center and consisted of a vertical tube with a longitudinal slot facing aft. Projecting through the slot was a luminous button attached to a spring loaded piston in the tube. The piston was connected directly to the bottom of the pitch control lever (collective) by a pull wire. Readings showed the general pitch setting of the main rotor blades and was scaled from 2 ½ degrees at the bottom to 14 degrees at the top. It was suggested that 10 degrees be used for take-off and 2 ½ degrees for autorotation.

      Tail Rotor Blades
      The tail rotor blades were all wood. The spar was made of spruce, with alternating laminates of maple and mahogany filling out the airfoil. The whole tail rotor blade was covered with fabric, and a thin brass sheet was molded and fastened to the leading edge to protect against erosion.

      General Arrangement Drawing

      Mission Systems

      The tactical mission of the S-47 helicopter was for observation, courier missions, and assisting the artillery by locating suitable targets and adjusting fire. A litter installation was available for carrying one person externally.

      YR-4B Litter Demonstration

      The YR-4B model has bomb racks installed and was capable of carrying three 100 pound demolition bombs or one 325 pound depth bomb. The Government deleted the bomb rack requirement for R-4B production models.

      Rescue Hoist
      The U. S. Coast Guard designed a hydraulic rescue hoist capably of hoisting 400 pounds at 2 ½ feet per second for use on the R-4 (HNS-1) helicopter.
      Sergei Sikorsky describes the development of the rescue hoist in the link below to the April 2011 Archives Newsletter:

      USCG CDR Frank Erickson demonstrates the rescue hoist to Igor Sikorsky

      History of S-47 SS-158 - History

      Saint Francis Dam Disaster National Memorial and National Monument.
      Sec. 1111 of S.47: John D. Dingell Jr. Conservation, Management and Recreation Act.
      U.S. Senate Committee on Energy & Natural Resources | 2019.

      Above: St. Francis bill text follows table of contents. Download full text of S.47 here (260 pages).

      Legislative History &mdash Sec. 1111. Saint Francis Dam Disaster National Memorial Act. S. 1926/H.R. 2156 (Sen. Harris-D, Rep. Knight-R). S. 1926 was considered at a hearing before ENR on 8/15/15. H.R. 2156 was unanimously reported by HNR on 7/11/17 (H. Rept. 115-210) passed the House by voice vote on 7/11/2017 considered at a hearing before ENR on 8/15/18 and favorably reported by ENR on 11/14/18 (S. Rept. 115-360). &mdash as reported [= unchanged from this version. ENR = U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.]

      Final map. Click to enlarge.

      Share All sharing options for: John Wall's 47 points: A historical perspective

      John Wall went medieval on the Grizzlies. Memphis came into its game with Washington with the NBA's second best defense overall and arguably the best defensive backcourt on the planet. Despite the absence of running mates Nene and Bradley Beal , Wall scored 47 points off of 22 shots, got to the line 24 times and chipped in eight assists and seven rebounds on the way to Washington's 26th win of the season.

      And that doesn't make him special. Well, it does, but maybe not quite as much as you thought.

      According to Basketball-Reference.com, 27 players Wall's age or younger have scored more than 40 points in a game over the last 10 years. While the usual suspects of LeBron James, Chris Paul and Kevin Durant had big games early in their careers, so did Rodrigue Beaubois , Charlie Villanueva and Al Harrington . Most of the players to punch above their weight class were, like Beaubois and Ramon Sessions , guys with good ball skills who got hot from the outside when they were still flying under most teams' radars.

      Number of 40+ point games by players under the age of 23 over the last ten years

      Data courtesy of Basketball-Reference.com

      On the other hand, other than the two three pointers he hit, nothing about Wall's shot chart against Memphis screams fluke. Sure, he hit seven of his 11 shots inside the arc and outside the paint, but it's not like half of his points came off of three pointers. Wall shot well from mid-range, got to the line when defenses tried to adjust for his shooting and didn't make too many bad decisions with the ball.

      John Wall's shot chart against Memphis, March 25 2013

      Image courtesy of ESPN.com

      John Wall's shooting by area, 2012-13

      Area FGA FG% FGM - %Assisted
      Restricted Area 188 54.80% 26.2%
      In The Paint (Non-RA) 62 43.50% 18.5%
      Mid-Range 218 39.90% 29.9%
      Corner 3 9 55.60% 100.0%
      Above the Break 3 18 22.20% 50.0%

      Data courtesy of NBA.com/stats

      It's possible that Wall's big game was a complete fluke. It's just not very likely. As Mike pointed out this morning, Wall has improved the mechanics of his jump shot, something that should make further improvements to his accuracy far easier to come by. After a rough start during his first month back from injury, Wall has been shooting even better than he did to close last season.

      A lot of Wall's offensive value comes from his pass-first instincts. Despite his overwhelming physical advantages, he'll always look for the open man, a trait that becomes far more valuable if defenses have to game plan around his scoring.

      If his jumper continues to fall at even a league-average rat, this probably won't be the last time Wall approaches the 50 point threshold.

      History of S-47 SS-158 - History

      H. W. Hadley served on this ship 1932

      From the “Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships,” (1976) Vol. 6, pp.209-211.

      S-47, SS-158
      Displacement: Surfaced: 800 t. Submerged: 1,126 t.
      Length: 219’3” Beam: 20’6” Draft: 15’1” (mean)
      Surfaced: 14.5 k.
      Submerged: 11 k.
      Complement: 42
      Armament: 1 4” 4 21” torpedo tubes

      S-42 S-47 (SS-158) was laid down on 26 February 1921 by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Quincy, Mass. launched on 5 January 1924 sponsored by Mrs. Morris D. Gilmore and commissioned on 16 September 1925, Lt. John Wilkes in command Following commissioning and fitting out, S-47 conducted engineering and torpedo tests off the southern New England coast. However, with the new year, 1926, she departed New England and moved south to join Submarine Division (SubDiv) 19 in the Panama Canal Zone.

      She arrived at Coco Solo on 19 January and, for the next year and one-half, conducted local operations in the Pacific and Caribbean. During this period, her routine was broken by joint Army-Navy exercises testing the defenses of the canal by Fleet Problem VI (February 1926) and VII (March 1927) and by extended training cruises in the Caribbean (June 1926 and April 1927). Transferred to San Diego with her division in June 1927, she continued to participate in individual, division, fleet, and joint Army-Navy exercises into 1932.

      At that time, a period of inactivity in rotating reserve status was added to S-boat employment schedules. In 1936, S-47, now in SubDiv 11, was transferred back to Coco Solo, where she was based through the end of the decade. In the summer of 1941, she returned to New London and commenced operations off the southern New England coast. During September, she patrolled in the Bermuda area and, in October, she returned to New London. The following month, she moved north to Argentia to participate in exercises to test S-boat capabilities in arctic and sub arctic waters. By mid-December, she was back at New London, and, by January 1942, she was back in the Panama Canal Zone. Defensive operations in the approaches to the canal took S-47 into March.

      S.47 - John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation, Management, and Recreation Act 116th Congress (2019-2020)

      There is one summary for S.47. Bill summaries are authored by CRS.

      Shown Here: Introduced in Senate (01/08/2019)

      Natural Resources Management Act

      This bill sets forth provisions regarding various programs, projects, activities, and studies for the management and conservation of natural resources on federal lands.

      Specifically, the bill addresses, among other matters

      • land conveyances, exchanges, acquisitions, withdrawals, and transfers
      • national parks, monuments, memorials, wilderness areas, wild and scenic rivers, historic and heritage sites, and other conservation and recreation areas
      • wildlife conservation
      • helium extraction
      • small miner waivers of claim maintenance fees
      • wildland fire operations
      • the release of certain federal reversionary land interests
      • boundary adjustments
      • the Denali National Park and Preserve natural gas pipeline
      • fees for medical services in units of the National Park System
      • funding for the Land and Water Conservation Fund
      • recreational activities on federal or nonfederal lands
      • a national volcano early warning and monitoring system
      • federal reclamation projects and
      • search-and recovery-missions.

      In addition, the bill reauthorizes the Historically Black Colleges and Universities Historic Preservation Program and the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program.

      P-51's, P-47's, P-38's .


      Mark Allen M
      Propeller Driven

      Post by Mark Allen M on Jul 19, 2013 10:43:26 GMT -5

      P-47, P-38 and P-51 over Saipan 1945

      P-47, P-38 and P-51 over Saipan 1945

      P-51's escorting B-29's out of Iwo Jima July 1945

      P-47's of the 12th AF over Italian alps 1945

      P-38's of the 15th AF over Italy 1944

      P-38's of the 15th AF over Italy 1944

      P-38, P-47 and P-51 of the 9th AF over England early 1944

      Major Stapleton's P-51D "ESIE" of the 364th FG, 67th FW at 8th AF station F-375, Honnington, England 23 April 1945

      Lt. Col G. F. Ceuleers of the 364th FG, 67th FW P-51D "Constance" at 8th AF station F-375, Honnington, England 23 April 1945

      P-51D "Stasia II" of the 353rd FG at an airfield in England December 1944

      2nd Bomb Division, 8th AF, General Kepner's P-47 "Kokoma" at an airfield in England, 25 March 1945

      P-47 "Arkansas Traveler" of the 353rd FG ready for the D-Day invasion 6 June, 1944

      P-47's of the 318th FG at Bellows Field, Oahu, Hawaii 15 May 1944

      One of the first P-38's to land at Islay Field, Saipan, Marianas Islands, 10 July 9144

      F-5 "Rose Marie" of the 90th Photographic Recon Wing Italy 1944

      15th AF P-38 over Northern Italy 1944

      P-51D's with the 493rd BG at an airfield in Englad 11 November 1944

      P-51D's in Germany late 1945

      P-51B with the 401st BG, 8th AF at base in England 27 December 1943

      P-51D "Dallas Doll" with the 353rd FG in England December 1944

      P-47 of the 12th AF in Italy March 1945

      P-47 of the 78th FG with 20 mm. gun mounts on the wings. 8th AF station F-357 Duxford England 24 October 1944

      P-47 of the first Tac AF in flight over Germany 1945

      Duxford P-47's lined up August 1944

      P-38 "Georga Peach II" in flight over Panama 1945

      P-38 flies over heavily defended coast line near Ostend, Belgium 29 May 1945

      USAAF P-38 with right wing damage and left engine out after strike on Iwo Jima

      P-38's sfter being cleaned at Hawaiian Air Depot at Hickam Field, Oahu, Hawaii August 1944

      P-51D "Run?" of the 353rd FG England, 14 November 1944

      P-51D "Willit Run?" of the 353rd FG England November 1944 (This one is in the NASM I believe) Edit: an 'example' of this one is on display at the NASM

      P-51D "Babs in Arms" of the 364th FG, 67th FW at 8th AF station F-375, Honnington England 21 May 1945

      P-47 "Frenchie" Iceland 2nd Service Group 27 September 1944

      P-47 "Miss Mary Lou" of Maj. Henry McAfee

      P-47 of the 353rd FG in England 11 September 1944

      P-38 loaded with 1,000 lb. bomb for mission to hit Ploesti Oil Refinery 1944

      P-38 loaded with 6 500 ib. bombs for mission in Northern Italy 1944

      P-38 "Little Red Head" Islay Field, Saipan, Marianas Islands, November 1944

      P-51 "Tar Heel" at a field of the 91st BG bas eat Bassingbourne England February 1944

      P-51 "Ginny" of the 353rd FG in England 23 January 1945

      P-51 of the 78th FG 8th AF at Duxford England 29 April 1945

      P-47 of the 8th fighter command at an field in England 26 September 1943

      P-47 in the SWP theater 1944

      P-47 of the 365th FG taxiing for a mission to Belgium 1944

      P-38 being loaded with rockets 1945

      P-38's taxiing for mission to Belgium January 1945

      P-38 "Hammer's Destruction Company" at a 10th AF base in India 8 July 1945

      P-51D of the 47th FS, 15th FG being offloaded to barges for shore Orote Bay, Guam 1945

      P-51D of the 47th FS, 15th FG being offloaded to barges for shore Orote Bay, Guam 1945

      P-51D of the 47th FS, 15th FG being offloaded to barges for shore Orote Bay, Guam 1945

      P-47's prepares for launch from the USS Manilla Bay off Saipan 23 June 1944

      P-47's at Meeks Field, Iceland 2nd service group 9 August 1943

      P-47's of the 8th AF being prepared for the D-Day Invasion June 1944

      P-38's and F-5's taxiing for takeoff on mission to Iwo Jima before invasion 1945

      P-38 taking off from airfield in Corsica 1944

      P-51's of the 374th FS, 361st FG, 8th AF escorting bombers over Germany 1944

      P-51's of the 31st FG, 15th Fighter Command over Italy 1945

      P-51's of the 8th AF after escorting bombers over Germany 1944

      P-51's over Northern Italy 1944

      P-47's of the 12th AF over Italy 25 February 1945

      P-47 of the 8th AF on 7 May 1944 mission to Germany

      P-47 of the 9th AF taking off from a liberated area of France 1944

      P-38 on a low level gunnery pass in Panama

      P-38 over Valence, France 8 October 1944

      15th AF P-38 over Northern Italy 1945

      History of S-47 SS-158 - History

      The above chart shows the approximate first serial number shipped for the indicated year. This number should be used as a point of reference only. It is not necessarily the very first serial number shipped, but it can be used to determine the approximate year your Ruger firearm was shipped.

      Ruger does not necessarily produce firearms in serial number order. There are occasions when blocks of serial numbers have been manufactured out of sequence, sometimes years later. Also, within a model family the same serial number prefix may be used to produce a variety of different models, all in the same block of serial numbers. And in some cases, firearms may be stored for a length of time before they are shipped.

      For details on your specific serial number you may contact our Service Department: 336-949-5200

      For serial numbers manufactured prior to our electronic records, or for an official letter confirming the details on your firearm please download and mail in the Request for Letter of Authenticity form.

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      Watch the video: 10 TOP Natural History Moments. BBC Earth