Etruscan Architecture Timeline

Etruscan Architecture Timeline

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Etruscan architecture — was the form of architecture produced by the Etruscan civilization in Italy between the 9th and 2nd centuries BC.The Etruscan cityThe first Etruscan villages were built from four sided huts, either rectangular or round, with a very sloping roof… … Wikipedia

Etruscan art — was the form of figurative art produced by the Etruscan civilization in northern Italy between the 9th and 2nd centuries BC. Particularly strong in this tradition were figurative sculpture in terracotta (particularly life size on sarcophagi or… … Wikipedia

Etruscan — may refer to:Etruscans* Etruscan alphabet * Etruscan architecture * Etruscan chariot * Etruscan cities * Etruscan civilization * Etruscan history * Etruscan jewelry * Etruscan language * Etruscan mythology * Etruscan numerals * Etruscan Sibyl *… … Wikipedia

Etruscan mythology — Etruscan mural of the God Typhon, from Tarquinia … Wikipedia

ETRUSCAN ART — Etruscan art has traditionally been seen as a passive eclectic reflection of external influences, situated awkwardly between the Phoenician, Greek, and Roman worlds. Innovative reassessment by a small group of scholars has examined the… … Historical Dictionary of the Etruscans

Etruscan origins — A map showing the extent of Etruria and the Etruscan civilization. The map includes the 12 cities of the Etruscan League and notable cities founded by the Etruscans. There are two main hypotheses as to the origins of the Etruscan civilization in… … Wikipedia

Etruscan military history — The Siege of Rome by the Etruscan military against the Roman military The Etruscans, like the contemporary cultures of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome had a persistent military tradition. In addition to marking the rank and power of certain… … Wikipedia

Etruscan art — (с 8th–4th centuries BC) Art of the people of Etruria. The art of the Etruscans falls into three categories: funerary, urban, and sacred. Because of Etruscan attitudes toward the afterlife, most of the art that remains is funerary. Characteristic … Universalium

Architecture étrusque — Porta all Arco de Volterra, intégrée ensuite dans les murailles médiévales … Wikipédia en Français

architecture — I (New American Roget s College Thesaurus) Building design Nouns 1. architectural or building design, form architectural or structural engineering landscape architecture or gardening architectonics. See building. 2. (architectural styles) a.… … English dictionary for students

Etruscan and early Roman architecture

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The Etruscans: Art, Architecture, And History

Sarcophagai(?) of nobles often depict carvings of them reclining on klinai as though at banque Italy Book #5
Fun Facts!

Woolworking mainly done by women

Grave goods a main source of info on culture

Images of ancestors common in homes

8th century BC- Pottery wheel introduced

Alphabet/writing more frequent on women's possessions

Etruscans controlled sea routes/trading centers throughout portions of Mediterranean

Created sanctuaries for Greek god/esses for traveling Greeks at trading posts

Sarcophagai(?) of nobles often depict carvings of them reclining on klinai as though at banquets

Apotropaic function: designed to protect against evil spirits

Ludi: games held at funerals in honor of the deceased. Included chariot races, discus throwing, boxing, and foot races

Etruscan Life and Afterlife

The Etruscans are not as mysterious as they used to be. Thirty years ago this ancient Italian people were the subject of much popular interest, and hardly a week went by without the publication of a book or article on this or that aspect of the great Etruscan enigma. Their mysterious origin, their indecipherable language, their obsession with death and the afterlife: these were the familiar Etruscan puzzles. In recent times, however, this mystical image has faded. The Etruscans have been overtaken in the field of occult archaeology by the Holy Grail, the Turin Shroud, ley lines, pyramid-building astronauts and those old friends of every nutter, the Knights Templars. As far as I know the Etruscans have not been considered enough of a mystery to merit the attention of Arthur C. Clarke, and they have become far too ordinary for the likes of Velikovsky or von Daniken.

This process of demystification has arisen from the solid progress of scientific research during the past generation, or so Larissa Bonfante maintains in her introduction to Etruscan Life and Afterlife. The volume contains essays by different experts on aspects of modern Etruscan studies, and is designed to introduce the general reader to the current state of research. In my view it carries out this task extremely well. The book is attractively produced and superbly illustrated. Moreover, it undoubtedly succeeds in putting the Etruscans back into the mainstream of ancient history. The emergence of Etruscan civilisation in the eighth and seventh centuries BC is now seen not as an extraneous phenomenon to be explained by the arrival of the Etruscans from some exotic place, but as the result of a long process of cultural formation in Italy, Modern research has shown that the Etruscans were not unique or isolated on the contrary, as J.M. Turfa shows, their civilisation was to a large extent the product of extensive contacts with other peoples of the Mediterranean in the so-called 'orientalising' period (seventh - sixth-centuries BC). Etruscan art, treated here by M.-F. Briguet, has to be understood as a creative reaction to oriental and particularly Greek influences. Etruscan history is defined by M. Torelli as a story of city-states dominated by aristocratic clans and their servile dependants the decline of Etruria in the fifth and fourth centuries is not to be explained by some mysterious national death wish, but by the more prosaic realities of economic recession and social crisis.

That the Etruscans were a morbid bunch was always a nonsensical idea, arising from the simple fact that until recently most of the evidence came from the excavation of tombs. The past history of Etruscan studies, of which N.T. de Grummond gives a fascinating account, amounts to little more than the despoliation of the great cemeteries of Tarquinia, Cerveteri, Vulci, and the rest. More recently archaeologists have tried to redress the balance by investigating non-funerary sites, thereby giving new impetus to the study of town planning and domestic architecture – discussed here by F. Prayon. At the same time a more balanced and rational picture is emerging of Etruscan social life, religion and burial customs, as L. Bonfante shows in her own contribution especially interesting are her remarks on the social position of women, who enjoyed relatively high status, although she rejects as wishful thinking the old idea that Etruscan society was matriarchal.

Nevertheless there are still many unresolved puzzles. The rather perfunctory chapter by F. Richardson on the Etruscan language at least makes it clear how little is actually known about this subject. The majority of Etruscan texts, especially the longer ones, are still frankly incomprehensible our knowledge of the vocabulary is meagre in the extreme, and based largely on reasoned guesswork and almost nothing is known about the grammatical structure of Etruscan. Finally, since it bears no relation to any other language, its presence in an area of central Italy that was neither backward nor remote is problematic to say the least. Like it or not, the Etruscan language remains a mystery from virtually every point of view. As long as it stays that way, Etruscan civilisation itself will remain its intriguing character, in spite of the efforts of archaeologists we cannot hope to understand the Etruscans properly until we can make them speak to us in words we can understand.

Etruscan Life and Afterlife: A Handbook of Etruscan Studies
Edited by L. Bonfante - Aris and Phillips, 1986 – xxvii + 290pp - £28

Manhattan life insurance building (1894&ndash1899)

manhattan life insurance building | photograph by alfred s. campbell
image in the public domain via the new york public library

the city&rsquos next tallest building was also located in the financial district. designed by kimball & thompson, the manhattan life insurance building was completed in 1894, and stood as the city&rsquos tallest structure for five years until 1899. reaching a total height of 348 feet (106 meters), the building was located at 64&ndash66 broadway until it was demolished in the 1960s. today, one wall street occupies the same plot.

The History of the Etruscans: The Rise and Fall of a Pre Roman Italian Culture

A map showing the extent of Etruria and the Etruscan civilization the map includes the 12 cities of the Etruscan League and notable cities founded by the Etruscans.

Although its origins are debated, Etruscan culture greatly influenced the culture of Rome. They were eventually replaced by the Romans as the dominant power in Italy

The Etruscans originally occupied the area of western central Italy between the Tiber and the River Arno which covers modern Tuscany and Umbria.

The Land of the Etruscans

The land of the Etruscans was resource rich. It was a fertile land of rich volcanic soil as well as wooded hillsides and well stocked lakes. It was also the source of travertine stone for building and deposits of copper and iron, all resources essential to the development of sophisticated Iron Age civilisation.

Who were the Etruscans?

Etruscan language has been used to identify the Etruscans as Immigrants , containing as it does many non Indo European elements that suggest an eastern origin. It was the ancient writer Herodotus who first claimed that the Etruscans were actually native to Asia Minor and who settled in Italy after a mass migration.

The language however, also bears a resemblance to the form of Greek in use in the Hellenistic colonies of southern Italy.

The modern interpretation is that the Etruscans were native Italic people of the area who developed a new culture due to contacts with trade. This is backed by the archaeological record which shows the gradual evolution of the Etruscan culture, rather than any evidence of the sudden cultural change that would accompany the influx of a new group of people.

From Villanovan to Etruscan

It is believed that the predecessor of Etruscan culture was the Iron Age Villanovan culture. The population of Etruria at this time was dispersed in small settlements with main centres of population concentrated at defensively sited hill towns such as Veii and Tarquinia.

Archaeology indicates a change in the culture of these settlements from early 8th century BC. Graves began to change from cremations to inhumations and grave goods became richer, including items of eastern Mediterranean origins. By the end of the 8th century, what can be defined as an Etruscan culture had emerged.

In the century that followed, towns became more monumental with public buildings and elaborate houses. Chamber tombs began to appear with opulent grave goods. A defined class structure becomes clear in the burial record, with necropolii such as that at Cerveteri showing evidence of an aristocracy.

The source of this cultural change was probably Greeks for the Aegean and southern Campania and the east who would have been attracted to resource rich Etruria for trade purposes and in their turn passed on metal working skills, and the oriental styles that epitomize their culture. This would explain the distinct Etruscan styles of art which resemble Archaic Greek and oriental fashions.

The Rise of the Etruscans

By the 6th century BC, Etruscan culture was at its peak. The Etruscans themselves become active in trade with Greece and Asia minor, as is indicated by the rise of a middle class of craftsmen and traders. As a result, Etruscan interests began to spread throughout Italy and they themselves began to colonise outside of their home lands, reaching as far south as Campania where they founded the city of Capua, and trading beyond the Apennines. They were now the dominant italic culture.

The Etruscans and Rome

According to legend, the Etruscans ruled Rome from 616 to 509BC when they founded the Tarquin dynasty. They left other cultural legacies. The principle gods of the Etruscans were Tinia, Uni and Menrva. They were adopted by the romans in the form of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, the principle deities of the roman Capitoline triad.

Etruscan Decline and the Rise of Rome

The Tarquins were expelled from Rome in 509BC and Rome became a republic. The decline of Etruscan culture began soon after this, due to the growth of Rome and a decline in Etruscan maritime trade due to loss of Cumae in 474BC.

Etruria shrank back to its original territory. Rome however was encroaching. The Etruscan city of Veii fell to the Romans in 396BC and many Etruscan cities such as Caere, Tarquinia, Volterra and Perugia had made alliances with Rome by first half of the third century, paying tributes such as wood and agricultural products. By 90BC, Etruria had become absorbed by the Roman republic when the Etruscans formerly became Roman citizens.

Etruscan War, 311/10-308 BC

The Etruscan War of 311/10-308 BC was a short conflict between Rome and some of the inland Etruscan cities that for a brief period saw Rome facing a war on two fronts, against the Etruscans to the north and the Samnites to the south.

The Etruscan War falls in a period in which the traditional Roman chronology is probably incorrect. In this chronology the war took place in 311 to 308 BC, but that chronology includes a 'dictator year' in 309 BC, in which no consuls were recorded. Neither Livy nor Diodorus Siculus mention this year, and it was probably a later invention inserted in the list of consuls in an attempt to reconcile two different historical traditions.

Neither Livy nor Diodorus give any reason for the outbreak of the war. Livy reports that the Etruscans began to prepare for war in 312/11, and that the Romans responded by appointing C. Junius Bubulcus as dictator. He raised a new army, but was unwilling to be responsible for starting the war, and so the hostilities were delayed until the following year.

The war began with an Etruscan attack on the city of Sutrium, a key Romen border city. The Romans sent the consul Q. Aemilius Barbula to lift the siege, but although he won a victory over the Etruscan army the Romans suffered heavy losses themselves, and were unable to force the Etruscans away.

At the start of the next year the consul Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus took command of the Etruscan War. He too was credited with a victory over the Etruscans at Sutrium, but the siege continued. One of Fabius's officers, possibly his brother, suggested crossing the great Ciminian forest, then a trackless wilderness that acted as a border between Etruria and Rome. This officer crossed the forest with a single servant, eventually reaching Camerinum, where he arranged an alliance. This convinced Fabius to risk crossing the forest, and after a single days marching the Romans had reached a position on the Ciminian hills, overlooking the Etruscan heartland.

Livy and Diodorus Siculus provide similar accounts of the campaign on the far side of the forest. Diodorus reports two Roman victories, the first at an unnamed location, and the second close to Perusia. After this victory he agreed truces with the people of Arretium, Cortona and Perusia.

In Livy Fabius defeated a force made up of local peasantry, probably the first battle records by Diodorus. Livy then records a second battle, which in his main account takes place back at Sutrium, but that he admits might have been fought near Perusia. After this victory he arranged a truce with Arretium, Cortona and Perusia.

Diodorus's account ends at this point, but Livy goes on to record a third battle, at Lake Vadimo in the upper Tiber valley. This saw the Romans defeated the largest Etruscan army yet, and break the power of the remaining hostile cities.

In 308 the consul P. Decius Mus was allocated the Etruscan War. He agreed a new 40 year truce with the coastal city of Tarquinii and then campaigned against Volsinii, in the Tiber valley. After the Romans captured and destroyed a number of Volsinii strong points the Etruscan League sued for peace, and asked for a peace treaty. Decius didn't agree to this, but he did agree to a one year truce.

This ended the Etruscan phase of the war, but now the Umbrians rose in arms, perhaps realising that they would be the Roman's next target. While Decius moved back into the territory of Pupinia to block the Umbrian's route towards Rome, his colleague Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus made a forced march from Samnium, and defeated the Umbrians at Mevania.

This ended the war and left the Romans free to concentrate on defeating the Samnites. At the same time they agreed an alliance with the southern Umbrian city of Ocriculum, and on 303 BC, the year after the end of the Second Samnite War, they returned to Umbria.

Roman Conquests: Italy, Ross Cowan. A look at the Roman conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the series of wars that saw Rome transformed from a small city state in central Italy into a power that was on the verge of conquering the ancient Mediterranean world. A lack of contemporary sources makes this a difficult period to write about, but Cowan has produced a convincing narrative without ignoring some of the complexity.

Venice architecture biennale: a timeline through history from the 1980s to today

established in 1895, la biennale di venezia is today acknowledged as one of the world&rsquos most prestigious cultural institutions with events in the fields of art, architecture, cinema, dance, music, and theater. although the biennale&rsquos first art exhibition took place 126 years ago at the end of the 19th century, a dedicated architecture department was only established in 1980 with 16 official events to date.

(left to right) carlo ripa di meana, vittorio gregotti, luca ronconi, giacomo gambetti in 1975
image by lorenzo capellini | main image by giulio squillacciotti, courtesy of la biennale

in 1975, during the presidency of carlo ripa di meana, the first initiative towards an architecture exhibition was taken with &lsquoa proposito del mulino stucky&rsquo. curated by vittorio gregotti, who sadly passed away in 2020, the exhibit explored possible uses for the mulino, a neo-gothic industrial landmark on the western end of venice&rsquos giudecca island.

the aldo rossi-designed entrance to the 1st architecture biennale in 1980
image by ASAC, courtesy of la biennale

five years later, in 1980, the architecture department was established with paolo portoghesi appointed as the first director. since then, a series of renowned architects and scholars &mdash including kazuyo sejima, rem koolhaas, and massimiliano and doriana fuksas &mdash have directed the international event, which has become the world&rsquos most prestigious architecture exhibition. ahead of this year&rsquos biennale, set to open to the public on may 22, 2021, designboom looks back at the previous editions.

la strada novissima at the 1st architecture biennale in 1980
image by ASAC, courtesy of la biennale

la presenza del passato (1980), directed by paolo portoghesi

titled &lsquola presenza del passato&rsquo, or &lsquothe presence of the past&rsquo, the inaugural exhibition curated by paolo portoghesi explored the postmodernist movement. set within the corderie dell&rsquoarsenale, a new display space for the biennale, the main exhibition was laid out as a thoroughfare known as &lsquola strada novissima&rsquo. conceived as theater wings for a hypothetical postmodern street, the exhibition was designed by 20 architects including frank gehry, robert venturi, and rem koolhaas who each presented their work behind their respective façade. the exhibit provoked a lively debate on postmodernism, and helped establish the biennale as an important and influential event.

la strada novissima at the 1st architecture biennale in 1980
image by ASAC, courtesy of la biennale

architettura nei paesi di islamici (1982), directed by paolo portoghesi

two years later, paolo portoghesi sought to explore the architecture of islamic countries since the second world war. the exhibition used venice as an observation post and meeting point to look at the built condition of a range of different countries, from north africa to asia. portoghesi, who designed the mosque of rome alongside vittorio gigliotti and sami mousawi, noted the influence of islamic culture on personalities such as gaudì, wright, and le corbusier in his introduction to the exhibit and saw it as a contrast to the coldness of modernism. the main exhibition presented a series of projects that combine local traditions with innovative construction technologies, while other monographic exhibitions centered on the work of personalities who engaged with islamic architecture, such as fernand pouillon and louis kahn.

aldo rossi had previously designed a floating theater for the biennale | image by trevor patt / CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

progetto venezia (1985), directed by aldo rossi

with portoghesi becoming president of the biennale, architect aldo rossi was subsequently appointed director of the 3rd international architecture exhibition. for the exhibit, titled &lsquoprogetto venezia&rsquo (venice project), rossi invited both established and emerging architects to present their ideas and designs for the transformation of specific areas of venice, such as the accademia bridge on the grand canal. an international jury was appointed to select the best projects on display, with robert venturi, john rauch, denise scott brown, daniel libeskind, and peter eisenman all presented with &lsquostone lions&rsquo.

hendrik petrus berlage. disegni (1986), directed by aldo rossi

aldo rossi returned to venice the following year with a show dedicated to dutch architect hendrik petrus berlage. as the art biennale was taking place during the same period, the exhibition was on view at villa farsetti on the venetian mainland. drawn to the work of berlage due to the dutch architect&rsquos constant references to history, rossi collected and displayed projects such as the stock exchange in amsterdam, which was completed in 1903. after closing in venice, the exhibition traveled to amsterdam, paris, and finally berlin.

the giardini&rsquos book pavilion by james stirling opened in 1991 | image by trevor patt / CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

5th international architecture exhibition (1991), directed by francesco dal co

architectural historian francesco dal co was appointed director for the 5th international architecture exhibition, which returned to more familiar locations at the giardini and arsenale. francesco dal co, who sought to develop the biennale internationally, took influence from the art biennales by inviting national pavilions to participate in the exhibition. the austrian pavilion presented work by coop himmelb(l)au, while the swiss pavilion featured work by herzog & de meuron. dal co also chose to display the work of 40 italian architects, including massimiliano fuksas, renzo piano, and ettore sottsass. importantly, this edition saw the realization of the book pavilion, designed by james stirling, which is still prominently located within the giardini.

japan&rsquos &lsquofractures&rsquo exhibition was awarded the golden lion in 1996 | image by miyamoto kastuhiro, via interventions

sensori del futuro. l&rsquoarchitetto come sismografo (1996), directed by hans hollein

the 6th edition was the first to be overseen by an international directer &mdash hans hollein. the austrian architect continued to include the work of the national pavilions, with the main exhibtion taking place within the italian pavilion. titled &lsquosensori del futuro. l&rsquoarchitetto come sismografo&rsquo (sensing the future. the architect as seismograph), the event sought to investigate an architect&rsquos ability to sense the contemporary condition of the time, and translate this into future designs. approximately 70 architects were invited to exhibit one of their projects as a personal testament. gehry presented his design for the guggenheim museum in bilbao, while emerging names such as elizabeth diller and kazuyo sejima also presented work. the event was also the first time that golden lions were awarded to participants, with odile decq and enric miralles among the winners for their interpretation of the exhibition&rsquos theme. the golden lion for best national participant was presented to the japanese pavilion for its exhibition &lsquofractures&rsquo, curated by arata isozaki.

a 280-meter-long screen presented 12 videos of major cities from around the world | image © fuksas
see more work by fuksas on designboom here

less aesthetics, more ethics (2000), directed by massimiliano and doriana fuksas

directed by massimiliano and doriana fuksas, the 7th international architecture exhibition opened in june 2000 under the title &lsquoless aesthetics, more ethics&rsquo. rather than exploring the idea of architecture as buildings, the event developed a panoramic perspective on the contemporary city. highlighting three main themes &mdash the environment, society, and technology &mdash the directors used the event as a laboratory to &lsquoanalyze the new planetary dimension of urban behaviors and transformations&rsquo. the corderie, the 300-meter-long space that previously contained portoghesi&rsquos &lsquola strada novissima&rsquo, hosted a linear screen presenting 12 videos of major cities from around the world. meanwhile, the italian pavilion showcased the works of architects, artists, and photographers that, through different practices and methods, had questioned the evolution of the metropolis. french architect jean nouvel was awarded a golden lion for his interpretation of the exhibition.

this installation showcasing the work of peter eisenman was designed and constructed by matteo cainer

next (2002), directed by deyan sudjic

birtish writer and curator deyan sudjic was appointed director of the 8th international architecture exhibition in 2002. under the title &lsquonext&rsquo, the event considered what architecture would be like in the future. sudjic believed that, thanks to sketches, models, and new technologies, it was possible to foresee the future appearance of our cities. this was communicated through drawings, models, and material samples, which convey, in a tangible way, the impact that buildings have on our environments. sudjic also believed that this method would also lead us to understand the geographical areas that will host the most innovative projects of the future, touting china as one such location. architects including norman foster and jean nouvel were asked to present models of skyscrapers they were working on, while the US pavilion hosted suggestions for the restoration and the reconstruction of ground zero in the wake of the tragic events of september 11, 2001. the golden lion for the best project in the international exhibition was awarded to alvaro siza for his design of a cultural institution and museum in porto alegre, brazil.

asymptote designed a major part of the main exhibition at the 2004 event | image courtesy of asymptote

metamorph (2004), directed by kurt w. forster

the 9th international architecture exhibition was directed by architectural historian kurt w. forster. &lsquometamorph&rsquo explored the metamorphosis in architecture, dictated and facilitated by new technologies and materials. forster proposed his vision of contemporary architecture as a movement where untold meetings and new relations can happen, challenging the traditional idea of architecture as a union of isolated, well-defined elements. the event prominently featured an installation by asymptote created using computer technology. another part of the exhibit was devoted to four architects that profoundly changed the theoretical debate at the beginning of the 1980s: aldo rossi and james stirling on one side, and peter eisenman and frank gehry on the other.

a series of three-dimensional models were presented at the 2006 biennale | image courtesy of illy

cities. architecture and society (2006), directed by richard burdett

directed by richard burdett, the 10th international architecture exhibition opened its doors in september 2006. titled &lsquocities. architecture and society&rsquo, this edition focused on global cities and the problems that they face. much attention was paid to the role of architects when it comes to designing democratic and sustainable urban landscapes, as well as their links to policies of intervention, government statements, and social cohesion. the corderie dell&rsquoarsenale hosted screenings of never before seen films as well as a three-dimensional graphs that represent 16 cities and their urban experiences. meanwhile, within the italian pavilion at the giardini, 12 different international research centers analyzed this complex vision of urban transformation.

curator aaron betsky on &lsquotowards paradise&rsquo
video courtesy of gustafson porter + bowman

out there: architecture beyond building (2008), directed by aaron betsky

according to its director aaron betsky, the 11th exhibition &lsquowants to move towards a building-free architecture, in order to face society&rsquos crucial themes&rsquo. titled &lsquoout there: architecture beyond building&rsquo, the exhibition showed site-specific installations, visions, and experiments intended to help the viewer understand their value in the modern world. in betsky&rsquos opinion, architecture is less about making things and more to do with thinking and arguing about buildings. the corderie presented installations from participants such as diller scofidio + renfro, UNStudio, and zaha hadid, while a &lsquoheavenly garden&rsquo was created by kathryn gustafson. at the giardini, the italian pavilion hosted a retrospective on experimental architecture, which included work by frank gehry, morphosis, and coop himmelb(l)au.

sou fujimoto presented &lsquoprimitive future house&rsquo in 2010 | image © designboom
read more on designboom here

people meet in architecture (2010), directed by kazuyo sejima

titled &lsquopeople meet in architecture&rsquo, the 12th international architecture exhibition was directed by japanese architect kazuyo sejima. intended as a chance to experience the manifold possibilities of architecture, 44 participants were chosen and each given an independent space with which to show their understanding of the theme and their personal response to it. consequently, each participant was their own curator with multiple points of view presented to the public. the golden lion for the exhibit&rsquos best project was awarded to junya ishigami. &lsquothis exhibition gave me the chance to open architecture to new points of view on the modalities of relation between people,&rsquo said kazuyo sejima.

&lsquoarchitecture. possible here? home-for-all&rsquo was awarded a golden lion | image © designboom
read more on designboom here

common ground (2012), directed by david chipperfield

continuing the success of the 12th edition, british architect david chipperfield was selected to direct the 13th international architecture exhibition. the event was titled &lsquocommon ground&rsquo, a name which stresses the importance of a shared architectural culture. spread over 10,000 square meters, the exhibit comprised 69 projects made by architects, photographers, artists, critics, and scholars. many responded to the invitation with original proposals and installations and sought to involve others with whom they share a sensibility. &lsquoI encouraged them instead to demonstrate the importance of influence and of the continuity of cultural endeavor, to illustrate common and shared ideas that form the basis of an architectural culture,&rsquo chipperfield explained. japan was awarded the golden lion for best national participation, while urban-think tank, justin mcguirk, and iwan baan also won a golden lion for the exhibition&rsquos best project.

the entrance to the &lsquomonditalia&rsquo exhibition at the arsenale | image © gilbert mccarragher
read more on designboom here

fundamentals (2014), directed by rem koolhaas

titled &lsquofundamentals&rsquo, the 14th international architecture exhibition was perhaps the most ambitious to date. after several architecture biennales dedicated to the celebration of the contemporary, rem koolhaas looked at histories, tried to reconstruct how architecture finds itself in its current situation, and speculated on its future. &lsquofundamentals&rsquo consisted of three interlocking exhibitions: &lsquoelements of architecture&rsquo in the central pavilion &lsquomonditalia&rsquo at the arsenale and &lsquoabsorbing modernity: 1914-2014&rsquo in the national pavilions. together, these exhibitions illuminated the past, present, and future of the architectural discipline. the golden lion for best national participation was awarded to korea for an exhibition titled &lsquocrow&rsquos eye view: the korean peninsula&rsquo. read more about 2014 biennale on designboom here.

kunlé adeyemi&rsquos second iteration of the &lsquomakoko floating school&rsquo | image © designboom
read more on designboom here

reporting from the front (2016), directed by alejandro aravena

for the 15th international architecture exhibition, director alejandro aravena sought to confront pressing global issues such as segregation, inequality, access to sanitation, housing shortage, migration, and community participation. titled &lsquoreporting from the front&rsquo, the exhibit focused on bringing architectural solutions to the aforementioned challenges to the wider public. highlights of the exhibition included kunlé adeyemi&rsquos second iteration of the &lsquomakoko floating school&rsquo, which won him a silver lion, and a huge masonry arch erected by gabinete de arquitectura, which was awarded a golden lion. the spanish pavilion was deemed to be the best national participant, winning a golden lion for its exhibition &lsquounfinished&rsquo. read more about 2016 biennale on designboom here.

ten architect-designed chapels formed the vatican&rsquos first pavilion | image by alessandra chemollo
read more on designboom here

freespace (2018), directed by yvonne farrell and shelley mcnamara

under the direction of yvonne farrell and shelley mcnamara, the 16th international architecture exhibition opened in may 2018 with the title &lsquofreespace&rsquo. as a starting point, a manifesto was written by the curators, to put down into a short document the underlying values which would underpin the philosophy of the exhibition. their aspiration was that the word &lsquofreespace&rsquo focused on the generosity of architecture, with the manifesto used as a reference point for putting the exhibition together. the swiss pavilion was awarded the golden lion for best national participation with other highlights including ten architect-designed chapels for the vatican&rsquos first pavilion. read more about 2018 biennale on designboom here.

hashim sarkis details his plans as the event&rsquos curator
read more on designboom here

how will we live together? (2021), directed by hashim sarkis

originally intended to open in 2020, the 17th international architecture exhibtion is now scheduled to get underway in may 2021. titled &lsquohow will we live together?&rsquo, the event&rsquos curator, hashim sarkis, calls on architects to imagine spaces in which we can co-exist in the context of widening political divides and growing economic inequalities. stay tuned as designboom counts down to the opening of the biennale, and follow our ongoing coverage here.

Etruscan Architecture Timeline - History

Near East Egypt Persia Europe Greece Rome India Far East

600 The Etruscans establish cities stretching from northern to central Italy.

600 At some unknown time the Persian people migrate from Russia (central Asia) to s. Iran

600 The Greeks establish city-states along the southern coast of Italy and the island of Sicily.

600 Etruscan kings rule over Rome

600 Last Greek monarchies at Argos, Sparta, and Thera

600 Earliest known use of iron in China

594 Athen's laws reformed by Solon, the only Archon of Athens

587 Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia captures Jerusalem

587 Judah becomes a province of Babylonia

586 Exile of the Jews to Babylon

586 Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia conquers Phoenicia

582 Birth of Pythagoras, Greek philosopher and mathematician

581 Nebuchadnezzar II burns Jerusalem

580 Nebuchadnezzar II builds the hanging gardens of Babylon

566 Birth of Prince Siddhartha Gautama who later became known as the Buddha

560 Croesus of Lydia subjugates Greek Ionian colonies

551 Birth of Confucius (K'ung Fu-tzu, the Chinese philosopher

550 Lao-tse founds Taoism in China

559 Cyrus the Great of Parsa rebels against the Medes and founds the Persian empire

550 Persia conquers the Medes

547 Persians conquers Lydia, the battle of Sardis, and move through Asia Minor

543 Bimbisara expands his territories and introduces new administration and tax collection

540 Vardhamana (Mahavira Jina) the ascetic founds Jainism

540 Peistratus the tyrant takes control of Athens

539 Greeks defeat the Carthaginians

539 Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers Babylonia absorbing Babylon into the Persian empire

539 Cyrus the Great of Persia allows the Jews to return to Judah, now a Persian province

539 Cyrus the Great absorbs Phoenicia into the Persian Empire

534 Tarquinius Superbus (the proud), becomes the last king of Rome

533 Gandhara becomes a Satrap to the Achaemenid Empire of Persia

530 Cyrus conquers all of Asia Minor

530 Cambyses (son of Cyrus) becomes ruler of Persia

525 Egypt conquered by the Persians

525 Persian empire extends from India to Asia Minor

522 Darius I puts down a rebellion in Persia and becomes king

521 Darius I divides the Empire into 20 provinces (satrapies)

520 The temple in Jerusalem building projects resumed

519 Birth of Xerxes, future king of Persia

519 Pythagoras a Greek philosopher (so called demigod) introduces the octave in music

510 Reforms are introduced in Athens by Cleisthenes and introduces Democracy in Athens

509 Tarquinius Superbus, the last Etruscan king, is cast out of Rome

509 Birth of the Roman Republic, Etruscan rule ends

509 Nebuchadnezzar II builds the Hanging Gardens

509 Many wars with Rome and other inhabitants of Italy (the Etruscans and the Greeks).

508 Lars Porsena, Etruscan ruler, attacks Rome who holds her ground at the Tiber bridge

507 Spartans attempt to restore the Aristocracy in Athens but Cleisthenes is given power

Watch the video: Who Came Before The Romans? The Etruscans. Timeline