Andrey Bubnov

Andrey Bubnov

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Andrey Bubnov was born in Ivanovo-Voznesensk on 23rd March 1883. He studied at the Moscow Agricultural Agricultural Institute and while a student joined the Social Democratic Labour Party. He supported the Bolshevik faction and over the next few years was arrested thirteen times.

In 1909 Bubnov was made an agent of the Central Committee in Moscow but the following year he was back in prison. On his release he was sent to organize workers in Nizhny Novgorod. He also contributed to Pravda.

On the outbreak of the First World War Bubnov became involved in the anti-war movement. He was arrested in October, 1916, and exiled to Siberia.

Bubnov returned to Moscow after the February Revolution. He joined the Moscow Soviet and was elected to the Politburo and as a member of the Military Revolutionary Committee and helped organize the October Revolution.

During the Civil War Bubnov joined the Red Army and fought on the Ukrainian Front. After the war he joined the Moscow Party Committee. A member of the Left Opposition he was in danger of losing his place in the hierarchy of the Communist Party.

In January, 1924, he switched to supporting the leadership and was rewarded by being appointed as Head of Political Control of the Red Army. Elected to Central Committee he was appointed People's Commissar for Education.

Joseph Stalin never trusted Bubnov and in 1934 he was removed from power. In 1937 Andrey Bubnov was arrested and imprisoned where he died in 1940.

Andrei Pervozvanny-class battleship

The Andrei Pervozvanny class were a pair of pre-dreadnought battleships built in the first decade of the twentieth century for the Baltic Fleet of the Imperial Russian Navy. They were conceived by the Naval Technical Committee in 1903 as an incremental development of the Borodino-class battleships with increased displacement and heavier secondary armament. The disastrous experiences of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905 and the unrest resulting from the 1905 Russian Revolution led to countless redesigns, change orders and delays in construction. Despite the designers' repeated attempts to modernize the ships while under construction, they were obsolete in concept from the beginning, and even more so when they entered service in 1911.

  • Imperial Russian Navy
  • Soviet Navy
  • 17,320 long tons (17,600 t)
  • 18,580 long tons (18,880 t) (deep load)
  • 17,600 ihp (13,100 kW)
  • 25 Belleville boilers
  • 2 twin 12 in (305 mm) guns
  • 4 × twin, 6 × single 8 in (203 mm) guns
  • 12 × single 120 mm (4.7 in) guns
  • 2 × 17.7 in (450 mm) torpedo tubes
    : 4–8.5 in (102–216 mm)
  • Upper belt: 3.1–5 in (79–127 mm) : 3.1–5 in (79–127 mm) : 4–8 in (102–203 mm)
  • Main-gun turrets: 8 in (203 mm) : 4–5 in (102–127 mm)
  • Secondary-gun turrets: 5–6 in (127–152 mm)

In the first year of World War I, Andrei Pervozvanny and Imperator Pavel I formed the core of the Baltic Fleet. For most of the war they remained moored in the safety of Sveaborg and Helsingfors. [note 1] Idle, demoralized ratings subscribed to Bolshevik ideology and on March 16 [O.S. March 3] 1917 took control of the ships in a violent mutiny, killing many of their officers in the process. The battleships participated in the Ice Cruise of 1918, and Andrei Pervozvanny later helped to put down the Krasnaya Gorka fort mutiny of 1919. After the Kronstadt rebellion of 1921, the Bolshevik government lost interest in maintaining the battleships, and they were scrapped beginning in November–December 1923.

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Andrei Bubnov was born in Ivanovo-Voznesensk in Vladimir Governorate (now Ivanovo, Ivanovo Oblast, Russia) on 23 March 1884 into a local merchant's family. Ώ] He was of Russian ethnicity. ΐ] He studied at the Moscow Agricultural Institute and while a student joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) in 1903. He was a supporter the Bolshevik faction of the party and over the next years would be arrested by the czarist government a total of thirteen times. In 1909 Bubnov was made an agent of the Central Committee in Moscow but the following year he was back in prison. [ citation needed ] On his release he was sent to organize workers in Nizhny Novgorod. He also contributed to Pravda. On the outbreak of the First World War Bubnov became involved in the anti-war movement. He was arrested in October, 1916, and exiled to Siberia. Bubnov returned to Moscow after the February Revolution. He joined the Moscow Soviet and was elected as one of the seven members of the Politburo. As a member of the Military Revolutionary Committee he helped organize the October Revolution.

During the Russian Civil War Bubnov joined the Red Army and fought on the Ukrainian Front. After the war he joined the Moscow Party Committee, and became a member of the Left Opposition.

Andrei Bubnov signed the Declaration of 46 in October 1923, but in January, 1924, he switched to supporting Joseph Stalin and was rewarded by being appointed as Head of Political Control of the Red Army. Elected to Central Committee, he replaced Lunacharsky as People's Commissar for Education.

As Commissar for Education he ended the period of progressive, experimental educational practices and switched the emphasis to training in practical industrial skills.

He was arrested by the NKVD during the Great Purge on 17 October 1937, expelled from the Party Central Committee in November 1937, sentenced to death on 1 August 1938 and shot the same day. Α] Bubnov was posthumously rehabilitated in 1958. His close relatives were still searching for him in various psychiatric hospitals in 1970s.

From December 11, 2015 to January, 19, 2016 (Moscow, Russia) “Tsar’s Tower” exhibition hall, in Kazansky railway station, hosted a large-scale exhibition entitled “Contemporary Iconographers of Russia”. The exhibit featured sixty iconographers, masters of mosaic and gold embroidery, jewelers as well as architects from Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Ekaterinburg, Vladimir, Archangelsk and other Russian cities. The exhibit showcased an extensive collection of regional schools and studios. Leading iconographers and educational institutions displayed their works. The exhibition was conceived and sponsored by Archbishop Pankraty, rector of Valaam Monastery of the Transfiguration, Irina Yazykova, (expert in contemporary iconography) and Sergei Chapnin (Journalist, editor in chief of “Gifts” Дары), – an annual publication dedicated to questions of Christian art.

The idea for the exhibition was conceived upon the untimely passing away of one of the leading iconographers of Moscow – Alexander Sokolov (1960-2015). At the opening of the exhibit, Archbishop Pankraty stated, “contemporary icons have to be studied, collected, preserved, and used to teach future iconographers.” This idea led to the exhibition. A large portion is planned to be transformed into a larger scale project, the Museum of Contemporary Russian Icons. “Icons should not only be painted for churches or monasteries, but spread throughout Russia. Of course, the icon is primarily made for a church, monastery and prayer, but at the same time it is a work of art, and maybe it is the best of what is now in our art,” said the archbishop.

First the story of contemporary Russian iconography, we have to look at the works of the older generation of iconographers. Most of them are muscovites, who started their creative careers in the 1970s and early 1980s, when icon painting was considered religious propaganda. All of them came to the icon by different paths. Some, like Alexandre Lavdansky, Alexander Chashkin and Anatoly Eiteneier came from the Avant Guard movement. Others, like Andrey Davydov and Alexander Sokolov, became interested in iconography while studying in art colleges. Almost all of them, in varying degrees, began with Fr. Zinon at Danilov Monastery in Moscow during its restoration to commemorate 1000 years of the Baptism of Russia in 1988.

This generation of artists had not only been rediscovering iconography, but also traditional techniques of egg tempera, natural pigments, gesso (levkas) recipes and varnishes, all of which are now taken for granted. Without knowing any better, they began by pouring “little lakes” of paint onto the surface of boards and letting those puddles fuse with the underlying layer. Only after a period of time had passed, artists stopped transferring drawings using tracing paper and began to fully exploit the possibilities of egg tempera. None of these artists remained a mere talented copier of medieval art, but found his or her own way in the profession, developing their own voice.

Fr. Zinon
started in 1970, emulating the works of Nesterov and Vasnetsov, after which he delved into 15th century style and Byzantine styles of various epochs. Now he works exclusively in encaustic, a method of painting with hot wax, using early Christian prototypes. The connection with style has always been strong in Fr. Zinon’s work. Like an archeologist, Fr. Zinon has has gone through all the epochs of Christian art, although, in reverse order.

Alexander Sokolov
‘s works of are always recognizable. The faces and facial features are quiet, subtle and consistent, while at the same time every image is personal and intimate.

Fr. Andrey Davydov
has worked in encaustic for the last 15 years. His works are highly ornate, and the power of his colors is comparable with Romanesque and Pre-Mongolian images.

Alexander Lavdansky
is the founder of Kinovar Studio. Looking at his images, we can also see a characteristic style, which absorbed Byzantine and classical Russian prototypes.

Anatoly Eiteneier
presented only a few images at this exhibition (the Mother of God of Tenderness), but he was rightfully called one of the most complex, bright, unusual and talented iconographers of contemporary Moscow.

Alexander Chashkin
, like many others, started his development in iconography after meeting Fr. Zinon. Alexander has a very special style, actively using pointillist technique for a number of years.

Andrei Bubnov

Like other iconographers, who started working in 1980s, he happened to be under the spell of father Zinon, sharing his love to Byzantine art. Years passing by fr. Zinon in his researches went deeper into the early Christian art, Andrei’s interest remained in Byzantine tradition. And even though he works with it for many years, his approach is still fresh and creative, his images are lyrical and artistic.

Iconographer Irina Zaron and sculptor Sergei Antonov came to iconography in 1990, both with deep faith and being amazingly gifted. Speaking about Irina and Sergei, I can’t say how many icons they have executed except to say that since 1990, they have done a lot. I would rather say they are among the very few (or, perhaps they are unique in Russia), who really create sacred spaces. We can not speak separately about paintings, carvings, icons or black-smithing. They create an integral liturgical space, where everything is interconnected, studied and lived through. An example of this is the astonishing interior of the Church of the Assumption of Andrey’s Monastery in Moscow. Irina’s painting is as tender and alive, as an old master’s works. Sergey finds the most unique way to bring out the harmonious relationship of stone and metal.

Each of the following masters from the Sobor studio, which was founded by Svetlana Rzhanitsyna, talented student of Alexander Sokolov, has a characteristic way of painting, a signature touch and charisma.

Svetlana Rzhanitsyna, as well as Sobor studio performs variety of works in both iconography and monumental painting. Other members of Sobor such as Svetlana Kobytova, Alexander Golyshev and Ekaterina Lukanina also showed their works at the exhibition.

Saint Petersburg’s school of iconography started in the 1980s with an interest in iconography rising out of restoration specialists. The approach to studying was rather conservative. First of all, we have to mention the name of a staff preservationist of the Russian Museum, Sergei Golubev (1947-2008), who educated many generations of iconographers in the Icon Painting School of the Saint Petersburg Spiritual Academy. Among these are Alexander Stalnov, Valentina Zhdanova, Ivan Kusov, Khristina Prokhorova.

These masters do their best to fervently follow old models, traditions and canons. Probably the brightest illustration to this approach was given by Khristina Prokhorova in one of her interviews: “If someone will try to rewrite the Gospel in a contemporary language, it is not going to be the Gospel any more, but religious literature. The same here (i.e. in iconography) – if we paint in a free manner, expressing your vision, your style, this is not going to be an icon any more. We must not say that an icon should be painted according to contemporary methods. It is analogous to the church service, which must be done according to the order, so the icon must be painted in accordance with the order too.”

Other famous iconographers of Saint Petersburg featured at the show were Dmitry Mironenko, Natalia and Nicolai Bogdanov, work while referencing Byzantine and early Russian models.

Speaking of the early Russian iconography prototypes, we should of course mention the successful master Georgy Gashev, who started his creative path under the guidance of Fr. Zinon and preserved his style of the period.

Our own studio, Olga Shalamova and Philip Davydov‘s, was also featured in the exhibition. We are also working in Saint Petersburg and consider iconography a creative and responsible research.

Iconographer Maxim Sheshukov, working in Sviyazhsk (Kazan region), manages to paint very traditional icons as well, as interesting creative works, which were exhibited at the show.

Arkhangelsk, workshop of Antonievo-Sijsky monastery was represented by Igor Lapin and Sergei Egorov:
The majority of icon painting schools in Russia were founded in the first half of 1990s, but the oldest school, now also considered the leader, was founded by Moscow Spiritual Academy much earlier, its roots can be traced back to 1958. That was the year, when a small group of people started to gather in Sergiev Posad (at that time – Zagorsk) to study icon painting. This group, which later became a school, started under the leadership of the most serious iconographer of the time – Maria Sokolova. By that time, she had considerable experience since her studies started before the October revolution, with restorer and iconographer Vasily Kirikov, who revealed the Trinity of Rublev and other icons in the beginning of the 20th century. Maria Sokolova, who dedicated her life to deep and faithful studies of traditional iconography, mostly followed the traditions of the Moscow School of Icon Painting the XV – XVI centuries. Contemporary teachers and students of this School use a large range of precedents for their studies, mostly selecting early Russian and Byzantine periods, considering these the pinnacle.

Saint Tikhon’s Institute, founded by Irina Vatagina (student of Maria Sokolova) also educates iconographers using models of early Russian iconography.

Mosaicist Alexander Karnaukhov, born in 1947, is a leading artist, as well as a talented and charismatic master of mosaics. He belongs to the older generation, since he started his work under the Soviet regime as a secular artist, but has now spent a long time working in churches. Alexander Kornoukhov’s work has an almost experimental quality, but is made with a serious, scholarly approach, deeply rooted in tradition. His works enrich churches in many countries of the world.

Denis Ivannikov
, head of Moscow Mosaic Guild, with Michael Sushkin exhibited an unusual type of mosaics – an easel mosaic on wood panel. Mosaic icons were widespread during Byzantine types, but now this technique is lost. These two masters made 5 mosaic icons specifically for the exhibition. We especially wanted to mention Denis Ivannikov’s works due to a very particular way he builds up his mosaics, using tiles very economically, only for most essential parts of the image. The rest is left uncovered, showing a worn wood texture.

Embroidery was presented by the following workshops: Ubrus, So-Deistvie, Workshop of Sofia Slutskaya, and also by works of some separate masters: Marina Amirova and Marina Turnova.

These photographs display the range of contemporary Russian iconography. It was one of the goals of the curators – to show that iconography in Russia can be up to date to show that it is a traditional form of art with its own discoveries and revelations and that it develops dynamically. At the discussions during the conference, all the speakers agreed, that the exhibition shows all the “layers” of the contemporary state of iconography. It is evident, that the technical skills are already on a good level, but there is still long way to go towards significancy. The first iconography exhibition was organized in 1989, 26 years ago. Since then, there have been many large and small ones, but the visitor’s question remains: what is a contemporary icon? Is iconography a real art, or it is just a craft of copying old models? What attitude should we have towards it? Most people considered icons exclusively as liturgical objects and only a few people considered them to be works of art. Now, finally, at the opening of this exhibition, for the first time in our epoch, everyone could hear the words of Archbishop Pankratiy, recognizing artistic and aesthetic values of the icon. This became the main idea of the exhibition, separating it from all the previous ones.

Andrei Bubnov

Andrei Sergeyevich Bubnov (Rusisht: Андрей Сергеевич Бубноv 23 mars 1883 – 1 gusht 1938) [1] ishte udhëheqë revolucionar Bolshevik në Rusi dhe anëtar i Opozitës së Majtë.

Bubnov ka lindur në Ivanovo-Voznesensk në guvernatorin Vladimir (tani Ivanovo, Rusi) më 23 mars 1883 [2] në një familje lokale të tregtarëve rusë. [3] Ai u përjashtua nga Universiteti i Moskës për aktivitete revolucionare. [2] Ai studioi në Institutin Bujqësor të Moskës dhe ndërsa një student iu bashkua Partisë Punëtore Sociale Demokratike të Rusisë (RSDLP) në vitin 1903. Ai ishte një mbështetës i fraksionit bolshevik të partisë. Në verën e vitit 1905, ai u bashkua me komitetin e partisë Ivanono-Voznesensk, dhe ishte delegat i tyre në Konferencat e 4-të (1906) dhe të 5-të (1907) në Stokholm dhe Londër. Në vitin 1907-08, ai ishte anëtar i komitetit të RSDLP në Moskë dhe i komitetit bolshevik për Rajonin Qendror Industrial. Ai u arrestua në vitin 1908. Me lirimin e tij nga burgu në vitin 1909 Bubnov u bë agjent i Komitetit Qendror në Moskë. Ai u arrestua përsëri në vitin 1910 dhe u internua në një kështjellë. Pas lirimit të tij në vitin 1911, ai u dërgua për të organizuar punëtorë në Nizhny Novgorod. Prej andej, ai ishte një nga organizatorët e Konferencës së Pragës të janarit 1912, e para që përjashtoi të gjithë anëtarët e RSDLP që nuk ishin bolshevikë. Ai ishte i arrestuar në kohën e konferencës, por në mungesë të tij u zgjodh anëtar i Komitetit Qendror të të gjithë bolshevikëve. Më pas, ai u dërgua në Shën Petersburg për të ndihmuar në fillimin e Pravda, dhe për të punuar me fraksionin bolshevik në Duma e Katërt. Ai u arrestua përsëri dhe u deportua në Kharkov.

Me shpërthimin e Luftës së Parë Botërore Bubnov u përfshi në lëvizjen kundër luftës. Ai ishte, por u arrestua së shpejti dhe u deportua në Poltava. Ai u shpërngul në Samara, ku u arrestua në tetor 1916 - për herë të trembëdhjetë, gjithsej - dhe u dëbua në Siberi. [4] Bubnov u kthye në Moskë më 1917 pas Revolucionit të shkurtit. Ai u bashkua me sovjetikun e Moskës dhe, në Konferencën e 6-të të Partisë në korrik 1917, ai u zgjodh në komitetin e tij qendror. Në gusht, ai u transferua në Petrograd. Pak para Revolucionit të tetorit, ai u zgjodh si një nga shtatë anëtarët e politbyrove të para bolshevike së bashku me Leninin, Zinovievin, Kamenevin, Trockin, Stalinin dhe Sokolnikovin. [2] [5] Si anëtar i Komitetit Revolucionar Ushtarak, ai ndihmoi në organizimin e Revolucionit të tetorit, por në shkurt të vitit 1918 ai ishte nga anëtarët kryesorë të fraksionit komunist të majtë, i cili kundërshtoi vendimin e Leninit për të nënshkruar Traktatin e Brest-Litovsk, për t'i dhënë fund luftës me Gjermaninë. [6] Gjatë Luftës Civile të Rusisë, Bubnov u bashkua me Ushtrinë e Kuqe dhe luftoi në Frontin e Ukrainës. Pas luftës ai u bashkua me Komitetin e Partisë së Moskës dhe u bë anëtar i Opozitës së Majtë.

Nën pseudonimin Kisanko, ai udhëtoi në Guangzhou, Kinë, për të udhëhequr një ekip të këshilltarëve sovjetik të nacionalistëve, [2] pastaj një bashkëpunim të ngushtë me komunistët. Pas Incidenti i Zhongshanit më 20 mars 1926, ai përfundoi një marrëveshje me nacionalistin e ri, Chiang Kai-shek. Ai u kujtua me kërkesën e Chiang muajin e ardhshëm. Më pas ai ka punuar me Grigori Voitinsky dhe Fyodor Raskolnikov në "Tezat paraprake mbi gjendjen në Kinë", i cili u prezantua në ECCI në nëntor dhe dhjetor të atij viti. [2]

Në vitin 1929, ai u zëvendësua nga Lunacharsky si Komisar i Popullit për Arsim. Si komisar ai i dha fund periudhës së praktikave arsimore progresive dhe eksperimentale dhe ia vuri theksin trajnimit në aftësitë praktike industriale.

Ai u arrestua nga NKVD gjatë terrorit të madh më 17 tetor 1937 dhe u përjashtua nga Partia e Komitetit Qendror në nëntor 1937. Të dhënat nga koha, të cilat nuk janë bërë publike deri në vitet 1980 dhe 1990, tregojnë se ai u dënua me vdekje më 1 gusht 1938 dhe u qëllua të njëjtën ditë.</ref name=death>

Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch &ndash Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Andrei Bubnov

Andrey Vladimirovich Bubnov is former Managing Director at Delo-Center LLC and former Deputy Chief Executive Officer-Finance & Economy at Novorossiysk Commercial Sea Port PJSC. He received an undergraduate degree from MGIMO University.

Novorossiysk Commercial Sea Port PJSC

Chief Executive Officer at Global Ports Investments Plc

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Head of Investor Relations Global Ports Management LLC Global Ports Group at Global Ports Investments Plc

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Chief Executive Officer at Delo-Center LLC

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Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) MFA Russia (MGIMO)

Global Ports Investments Plc is an investment holding company, which engages in the management of container and oil products terminals. It operates through the following segments: Russian Ports, Oil Products Terminal, and Finnish Ports. The Russian Ports segment consists of Petrolesport (PLP), First Container Terminal (FCT), and Moby Dik (MD) container terminals in St. Petersburg, Ust-Luga Container Terminal (ULCT) in the Ust-Luga port cluster in the Baltic Sea Basin and the Vostochnaya Stevedoring Company (VSC) container terminal in Russia's Far East Basin. The Oil Products Terminal segment comprises Vopak E.O.S. oil products terminal. The Finnish Ports segment operates port of Kotka and focuses on Russian import and Finnish export cargo flows. The company was founded on February 29, 2008 and is headquartered in Limassol, Cyprus.

Delo-Center LLC operates as holding company with interest in stevedoring and freight services. It offers services for cargo transshipment and vessels bunkering in the port of Novorossiysk organization of multimodal container carriage freight forwarding, customs clearance of export/import cargo oil and oil products delivery. The company was founded by Sergey Shishkarev in 1993 and is headquartered in Moscow, Russian Federation.

Novorossiysk Commercial Sea Port PJSC engages in the stevedoring, additional port services, and sea vessel services. It offers stevedoring services and additional port services fleet services and other services mainly comprising rent, resale of energy and utilities to external customers. The company was founded in 1845 and is headquarte red in Novorossiysk, Russia.

Andrei Bubnov

Andrei Sergejevitš Bubnov (ven. Андре́й Серге́евич Бу́бнов , puoluenimiä Himik, Химик ja Jakov, Яков kirjallisia salanimiä A. Glotov, А. Глотов, S. Jaglov, С. Яглов ym 4. huhtikuuta (J: 22. maaliskuuta) 1883 Ivanovo-Voznesensk – 1. elokuuta 1938) oli venäläinen bolševikki ja neuvostoliittolainen poliitikko.

Andrei Bubnov syntyi tehtaan isännöitsijän perheeseen. Hän opiskeli Moskovan maatalousinstituutissa, josta hänet erotettiin vallankumouksellisen toiminnan takia. [1] Vuonna 1903 hän liittyi Venäjän sosiaalidemokraattiseen työväenpuolueeseen. Vuosien 1905–1907 vallankumoustapahtumien aikana Bubnov toimi puolueen Ivanovo-Voznesenskin ja Moskovan komiteoissa, joutui pidätetyksi ja karkotetuksi. Vuonna 1912 hänet valittiin puolueen keskuskomitean ehdokasjäseneksi. Vuodesta 1913 lähtien hän työskenteli Pravdan toimituksessa. [2]

Helmikuun vallankumouksen jälkeen Bubnov toimi bolševikkipuolueen Moskovan aluebyroon jäsenenä, tuli valituksi puolueen keskuskomiteaan ja politbyroohoon. Hän osallistui lokakuun vallankumoukseen Pietarissa ja työskenteli kansalaissodan aikana Ukrainan neuvostohallituksen ja kommunistipuolueen johdossa. Vuonna 1921 Bubnov oli tukahduttamassa Kronstadtin kapinaa. Vuosina 1921–1922 hän toimi Pohjois-Kaukasian sotilaspiirin vallankumousneuvoston jäsenenä ja vuosina 1922–1923 VKP(b):n keskuskomitean agitproposaston johtajana. [1]

Vuoden 1918 alussa Bubnov kuului Brest-Litovskin rauhaa vastustaneisiin vasemmistokommunisteihin. [2] Vuosina 1920–1921 hän oli mukana hallinnon hajauttamista vaatineessa ”demokraattisten sentralistien” ja vuonna 1923 trotskilaisten ryhmässä. Vuosina 1924–1929 Bubnov toimi puna-armeijan poliittisen hallinnon päällikkönä sekä Neuvostoliiton vallankumousneuvoston ja puolueen keskuskomitean organisaatiobyroon jäsenenä. Vuonna 1925 hän oli keskuskomitean sihteeri. Vuosina 1929–1937 hän työskenteli Venäjän SFNT:n valistusasiain kansankomissaarina. Vuodesta 1924 lähtien Bubnov kuului NKP(b):n keskuskomiteaan. Hän toimi myös Venäjän ja Neuvostoliiton toimeenpanevien keskuskomiteoiden jäsenenä. Hän on kirjoittanut joukon kommunistisen puolueen historiaa käsitteleviä teoksia. [1]

Bubnov pidätettiin lokakuussa 1937 ja ammuttiin Moskovan lähellä Kommunarkan teloituspaikalla syytettynä neuvostovastaiseen terroristijärjestöön osallistumisesta. Hänen maineensa puhdistettiin vuonna 1956. [3]


Revolucionář Editovat

Andrej Bubnov se narodil v Ivanovu do rodiny obchodníka. Studoval na moskevském agrárním institutu a v roce 1903 se připojil k Ruské sociálně demokratické dělnické straně [1] . Když se téhož roku strana rozdělila na bolševiky a menševiky, dal Bubnov přednost prvně jmenované frakci.

V roce 1909 se Bubnov stal bolševickým agentem v Moskvě, ale následující rok byl uvězněn. Po propuštění začal organizovat bolševickou konferenci v Nižném Novgorodu [1] a přispívat do stranického deníku Pravda.

Politik Editovat

Roku 1916 byl Bubnov zatčen a poslán na Sibiř. Do Moskvy se vrátil po únorové revoluci. Připojil se k moskevskému sovětu a spolu se Zinověvem, Kameněvem, Leninem, Sokolnikovem, Stalinem a Trockým stal jedním ze sedmi členů politbyra. Jako člen vojenského revolučního výboru pomohl Bubnov organizovat říjnovou revoluci.

Během ruské občanské války se Bubnov připojil k Rudé armádě a bojoval na Ukrajinském frontu. Po Leninově smrti roku 1924 se stal členem Levé opozice.

Roku 1923 Bubnov podepsal Deklaraci 46, [1] následující rok však podporoval Stalina, za což byl odměněn postem lidového komisaře pro vzdělávání, v němž nahradil Anatolije Lunačarského.

Smrt Editovat

Roku 1937 byl Bubnov vyloučen z politbyra, později byl zatčen a 1. srpna 1938 popraven. Roku 1956 byl rehabilitován. [1]

Reference Editovat

V tomto článku byl použit překlad textu z článku Andrei Bubnov na anglické Wikipedii.

Watch the video: Бесков и Бубнов